Skip to main content

Full text of "Land use plan"

See other formats


V\(/^ 



^A§OH.& FINE ARTS LIBRAHY 



■SITY 
OF 







REA 






/^ 



/^ 






/" 



t 



y 



I 

I 



^'^s -c>y -CO/ - 0(c fo - oj-oC-y 



LAND USE PLAN 

Planning Division, Department of Community Development 
Gainesville, Florida 
May, 1970 



Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the 
Florida Development Commission. The preparation of this re- 
port was financed in part through an urban planning grant from 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under the 
provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/landuseplanOOgain 



CITYCOAAMISSiON 

Perry C. McGriff, Jr., Mayor-Commissioner 
Neil Butler, Mayor Pro-Tern 
Courtland Collier 
Ted Williams 
Richard T. Jones 

PLAN BOARD 

Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman 

Harold Bedell 

Thomas Coward 

Dr. Clark Hodge 

Sam Hollowoy 

Jack Rutledge 

Harold Walker 

CITY MANAGER 



B. Harold Farmer 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

Norman J . Bowman, Director 
Audrey Will ingham, Secretary 



PLANNING DIVISION 

Richard Kilby 
Thomas Greenwood 
William Neron 
V. Miles Patterson 
Gary E. Wo I ford 
Jan Weaver 
Louie Wilson 
Mary Jo Hancock 



Assistant Director 
Planner II 
Planner I 
Planning Aide I! 
Planning Aide I 
Planning Aide I 
Planning Aide I 
Clerk Typist 



TITLE: 
AliTHOR: 

SUBJECT 

DATE: 

LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: 

SOURCE OF COPIES: 



HUD PROJECT NUMBER: 
NUMBER OF PAGES: 
ABSTRACT: 



Land Use Plan 

Planning Division, Department of Community 
Development, Gainesville, Florida 

A Policies Plan and Land Use Plan for 
Future Development of the Gainesville 
Urban Area. 

May, 1970 

Gainesville City Plan Board 

Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and 
Technical Information, Washington, D. C. 

Department of Community Development, 
Municipal Building, Gainesville, Florida 32601 

HUD Regional Office Library, Region III, 
645 Peachtree Seventh Building, 
Atlanta, Georgia 30323 

Florida P-54 



121 



Two major elements of the comprehensive 
plan are presented In this report: The land 
use plan map and supporting text, and a 
policies plan setting forth major goals for 
the community, along with principles to 
govern urban development, particularly 
with regard to areas wherein the land use 
plan could not be specific in detail. Each 
major land use element I.e. residential, 
commercial, industrial, and public are 
reviewed and analyzed Individually in both 
policies and land use plan sections. 
Growth factors Influencing the plan's 
formation, to wit: physical and geographic 
setting, the economy and population factors 
are reviewed. 



• •• 

ill 



I 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

BASIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN 3 

THE NEED FOR A VIABLE PLAN -. . . 3 

ECONOMY AND THE PLAN 3 

ORDER AND HARMONY 4 

PLANNING FOR THE URBAN AREA 5 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA GROWTH FACTORS 6 

PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC SETTING 6 

ECONOMY 9 

Early Developmenf 9 

Employment: Growth and Composition 9 

Income 12 

POPULATION 19 

Post Growth 19 

Population Characteristics 20 

Future Population Projections 22 

POLICIES PLAN 24 

RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT 25 

Goals for Residential Development 25 

Principles for Residential Development 27 

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 30 

Gools for Commercial Development 31 

Principles for Commercial Development 32 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 35 

Goals for Industrial Development 36 

Principles for Industrial Development 37 

TRANSPORTATION 38 

Goals for Transportation 39 

Principles of Transportation 39 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) p^g^ 

RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE 4] 

Goals for Recreation and Open Space 4^ 

Principles of Recreation and Open Space 40 

COMMUNITY FACILITIES 43 

Goals for Community Facilities ^o 

Principles for Community Facilities aa 

Schools 44 

Public Utilities 45 

Police Services 4^ 

Fire Services 47 

Library Services 47 

LAND USE PLAN 49 

COMMERCIAL 49 

Existing Commercial Land Use 5] 

Central Business District 52 

Strip Commercial 53 

Shopping Centers 53 

Commercial Zoning 54 

Future Commercial Land Use 55 

RESIDENTIAL 57 

Summary of Existing Characteristics 57 

Dwelling Units 53 

Housing Conditions 59 

Plan Recommendations ^q 

INDUSTRIAL 63 

RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE 67 

Introduction 67 

Neighborhood Parks 67 

Neighborhood Playgrounds 74 

Community Parks 75 

Special Use Facilities 79 

Semi-Public Recreational Facilities 79 

Regional Parks and Open Space 80 

Conclusions ^ 82 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(Continued) 

OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES °q^ 



Fire Protection 



86 



Fire Department Standards oz 

Responses to Alarms gz 

Future Needs Before 1980 37 

Future Needs After 1980 90 

Library 9O 

Police Protection- Gainesville Urban Area 93 

Gainesville Police Department 93 

Alachua County Sheriffs Department .... 95 

University of Florida Police Department 9^ 

Florida Department of Public Safety .... 95 

Region II Law Enforcement Planning Council ^ 9^ 

Schools Needs - Gainesville Urban Area, 1980 97 

Needs for New Elementary Schools .... 99 
Projected Future Enrollment in 

Junior-Senior High Schools . 100 

Junior- Senior High Schools 102 

Utilities 103 

TRANSPORTATION 104 

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN 1^07 

CONCLUSIONS 109 

APPENDIX Ill 



VI 



LIST OF TABLES 

Page 

I. Past and Future Resident Employment, Alachua County 

1950-1980 11 

II. Percentage Distribution of Present and Projected Employment 

by industry Group, Alachua County, 1967, 1975 and 1980 13 

III. Personal Income: Major Sources of Personal Income Received 

by Civilians for Participation in Production, Alachua County and Florida . 17 

IV. Existing Dwelling Units- 1970 58 

V. Dwelling Unit Composition, Gainesville Urban Area 1969-1970 59 

VI. Low and Moderate Income Housing Completed or Underway 

Gainesville Urban Area 61 

VII. Recreation Standards-Recreation Facilities for the 

Gainesville Urban Area 68 

VIII. Existing and Proposed Recreation Facilities 

Gainesville Urban Area 84 

IX. Standard Response Distances and Distribution of Companies 88 

X. Police Activity, Gainesville Police Department 94 

XI. Comparative School Enrollment and Population 

Gainesville Urban Area, 1960, 1967, 1969 and 1980 98 

XII. Membership and Recommended Capacity of Urban Area Elementary 

Schools 101 

XIII. Existing Land Use, Zoning and Land Use Plan Recommendations 

Gainesville Urban Area 110 



VII 



LIST OF CHARTS, ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

Page 

I. Composition of the Resident Employment, Past and Projected 

Alachua County 1950-1980 14 

II. Income Per Capita United States, Florida, Alachua and Selected 

Counties 1950-1966 15 

III. Age- Sex Totals for 1960 21 

fV. Past and Projected Population, Gainesville Urban Area 1950-1990 ... 23 

V. Neighborhood Shopping Center Service Districts 

Gainesville Urban Area 1970 56 

VI. Composition of New Dwelling Units Gainesville Urban Area 62 

VII. Recreation Plan - Neighborhood Parks Gainesville Urban Area 71 

VI'll. Recreation Plan- Neighborhood Playgrounds Ga inesvi lie Urban Area . . 76 

IX. Major Parks and Open Space Gainesville Urban Area 78 

X. Fire Station Service Districts, Gainesville Urban Area 91 

Xi. Generalized Soil Suitability Map Appendix 

XII. Existing Land Use, Gainesville Urban Area, Gainesville, Florida .... Appendix 

XIII. Proposed Land Use Plan, Gainesville Urban Area, Gainesville, Florida . Appendix 



VIII 



INTRODUCTION 

The Gainesville Plan Board undertook the preporation of a Comprehensive 
Plan for the urbanizing area of the City and environs approximately three years 
ago. In the period that followed a series of background or "tooling up" studies 
were completed as follows: 

Physiographic Study April, 1967 
Enrollment and Empiloyment, University 

of Florida and Santa Fe Junior College September, 1967 

Population Study January, 1968 

Community Facilities and Recreation May, 1968 

Planning Unit Study July, 1968 

Land Use Analysis January, 1969 

Economic Study March, 1969 

Commercial Study September, 1969 

Industrial Study December, 1969 

The purpose of these sutdles was to provide background information on "what 
makes the Gainesville Urban Area tick". Such an understanding of the resources 
of the community, coupled with an expression of the community goals and objectives, 
forms the basis for the preparation of a plan to guide the growth of the urban area 
during the decade ahead. 

In sum, all of the documents which have been prepared In this program con- 
stitute a portion of the comprehensive plan. None are as Important, however, as 
the Land Use Plan which is presented herein in a proposed or preliminary form. 
It should be noted that this plan does not represent an Inflexible guide for the 
development or placement of land uses in the urban area without cognizance of 
likely unforeseen changes and technological Innovation. The Plan, however. Is 
intended to provide a firm footing for shaping the future of the urban area of 
Gainesville, and therefore, should not be disregarded or changed without docu- 
mented evidence as to the need and desirability of such change. 

It is not necessary here to reiterate all of the undesirable characteristics 
of the typical urban scene today which have resulted from a lack of sound planning. 
There is abundant evidence that cities, for the most part, have grown In a 
haphazard manner with chaotic growth accompanied by a host of problems. Not 
the least of these problems has been an inflation of the cost of government and 
all community services to a point where the battle cry of taxpayer revolt Is 
now frequently heard. 

No major corporation or company would think of embarking on an extension 
of their structure without first thoroughly assessing their current status and drawing 
up a blueprint for their expansion. It is hoped that this document will provide 
such a blueprint for both the public and private decisions relating to the community 
growth In the future. 



-1- 



It is vital that two facts be understood regarding the Plan: 

1. it is not a panacea for all ills which exist now in the community, 
nor will it insure that mistakes will not be made in the future. It 
will, however, provide a better base for decision making than 
has existed in the past. 

2. The Plan is only a first step in a continuing process. In fact, the 
Plan will only be viable to the extent that it is implemented 
through such community development tools as zoning, subdivision 
regulations, capital improvements and public and private decisions 
effecting the future shape of the community. Even then, refinement 
and change to reflect new conditions must be constant. 



-2- 



BASIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN 

Several factors which help provide the basic framework of this report should 
be set forth at the outset. Ideally and intentionally this document should reflect the 
desires of the community as interpreted by a representative group of citizens - the 
Plan Board - and within the context of good sound planning practice with guidance 
provided by a professional staff. Neither the Plan Board nor the staff can divorce them- 
selves from the overall setting or mood of the people at a given time. I his too must 
be taken Into account in reviewing this report. 

What are some of the factors influencing this plan? 

THE NEED FOR A VIABLE PLAN 

A first consideration in drafting this plan was recognition of the fact that values 
and techniques which influence the character and composition of urban living change 
too rapidly to make it practical to adopt a rigid plan. One example for illustration 
pusposes is the case of mobile homes. As recently as two or three years ago mobile 
homes were not considered a very important factor in the housing supply of this com- 
munity. Based on a very general study of new dwelling units added to the community 
each year, only two or three times since 1960 had mobile homes made up as much as 
10 per cent of the new housing stock, compared to 15 percent or so nationally. 
Nationwide mobile homes accounted for 90 percent of all dwellings under $15,000 
in cost during 1969. The reasons for this dramatic increase are many, but perhaps 
the most important is that it is now becoming almost impossible for the average person 
to afford a single family house and, therefore, people are turning to mobile homes 
as a substitute. That this is a local as well as a national phenomenon is pointed up 
by the fact that recently the County Commission has had requests to rezone hundreds 
of acres into the mobile home category. 

The point of this digression is that had the Plan been drawn 2 to 3 years ago, 
much less attention would have been given to mobile homes. While maximum consi- 
deration has been given to new innovations in developing the Plan, it is pointless 
to believe that other such changes will not be forthcoming in the near future, and the 
Plan must retain viability to accommodate legitimate change. 

ECONOMY AND THE PLAN 

Perhaps the most basic precept in planning is that, by its very nature, the 
element of economy will be introduced into the otherwise random growth process . 
There are many facets to the word economy in this context, but most important it 
means getting the most good out of the taxpayers dollar. 



-3- 



1 



[ 
r 



Without question, there are varying costs to the pubiic-at-large resulting 
from the development of different parcels in difficult locations. For example, ^° 
the extent that the general public bears the cost for utility expansion, it costs 
more proportionally to provide service the further you are from the sewer treat- 
ment plant or the water source. It is therefore a public concern to the extent 
that it must pay for utility expansion. j 

Certain areas, when developed, will create greater storm water run-off 
than others, which must be considered. Another example, it will ultimately J 

cost more to locate a new shopping center in an area insufficiently served by ' 

streets than one which is adjacent to an existing thoroughfare, at least to the 

extent that streets are provided by the taxpayers. And finally, the distances I 

which people must travel to and from home, work, and shopping, etc., has a 
direct relationship to the cost of providing streets on which such travel takes 

place. Therefore, in a very general sense, a plan should seek to minimize | 

this cost to the public within the framevvork of the democratic, free enterprise 
system. 

Another meaning of economy is equity. By this is simply meant that every- 
one should pay his fair share in proportion to the benefits he receives. There 
is without question certain benefits which accrue from one type of development 
over another. It is impossible to build a very strong case that one class of 
development should bear a disproportionate share of the common development 
costs of a community. 

ORDER AND HARMONY 

Many early plans in this country began with the stated objective of 
"providing the very best community in which to live, work, and play". Stated 
another way, what these early planners were seeking to achieve was the maxi- 
mum hamiony of man with his physical environment. 

There are many facets to the problem of achieving peace with man's en- 
vironment and, by no means, are the factors which are considered important 
by some likewise as important to others. 

Perhaps most important, however, is the desire for privacy and the related 
facet of compatibility with the adjacent property. Much, if not most, of the 
physical planning effort today is aimed at achieving compatibility between dif- 
fering uses. Its achievement, on the other hand, is directly and irretrievably 
tied to the social attitudes of the majority of the people, and change can only 
be accomplished to the extent that such attitudes are changed. Most of the 
people no doubt in the search for privacy, have chosen to live in single family 

detached dwellings. This represents for the majority of homeowners the largest 
single investment of their lifetime. Any force which threatens this investment, such as 



-4- 



the introduction of a use believed to be incompatible, will result in conflict and 
disruption. In accord with this attitude, a major objective of this plan is the 
minimization of such conflicts, while still providing for a full range of legitimate 
building types and land uses. 

PLANNING FOR THE URBAN AREA 



The need for broad area plans irrespective of artificial political boundaries 
is so well documented as to hardly need mention. Almost all of the physical 
forces relating to urban development are ignorant of such boundaries. Water 
flows across them, traffic runs through them and people cross over them at will . 
Thus, the decision to plan on an urban area basis was the only sound logical 
approach. The extent to which the plan is a force in the area outside the cor- 
porate limits will depend on the logic of its recommendations plus the political 
forces which shape all developmental decision. Certainly the principles of good 
modern planning have their best chance in the areas outside the City where errors 
made in more developed areas have not yet been made. 



-5- 



GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA GROWTH FACTORS 

There are many factors which exert an influence on the growth of a community. 
Among the more important of these are the location, climate and other physical 
characteristics of the area. Most important is the basic economy of the area. 

Physical factors such as land and development are the "materials" of planning, 
but the purpose of planning is to improve the lives of people. Elemental to a plan 
then, is an examination and understanding of the characteristics of the population, 
i.e. the people. These considerations are examined in the following sections. 

PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC SETTING 

Gainesville is located iXDughly in the middle of the State being approximately 
as far from the farthermost extreme of the panhandle in Escambia County as from 
the tip of the Florida peninsula. Geographically, the urban area is located on 
the Florida peninsula at a point just south of where the State becomes a peninsula 
and midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. 

It is the largest urban area in North Central Florida with the exception of 
the port City of Jacksonville. The area lies within the economic sphere of 
Jacksonville, although it exerts a strong economic influence over a wide geo- 
graphic area on its own. It is believed the outside limits of this influence are 
roughly bounded by the Gulf Coast and the cities of Ocala, Lake City, Starke, 
Keystone Heights and Palatka. The area is serviced by railroads, by feeder airlines 
(which may become major passenger airlines if recent proposals are implemented), 
and by an interstate highway and other major roads. 

The mean temperature of the area is just slightly less than 70 and ranges from 
a January mean of approximately 5/ to a July average of approximately 81 . 
Slightly less than 50 inches of precipitation is measured here every year on the 
average. The growing season is estimated to be approximately 285 days. 

The topography of the area ranges from extensive flat areas to moderately 
level plateaus, to the rolling foothills north and northwest of the City. There 
are relatively few areas from which development would be excluded because of 
topographic characteristics, however, certain areas, such as the rolling terrain 
in the Northwest favor selected types of development such as single family resi- 
dential, as opposed to the larger more flat sites better suited for commercial and 
industrial developments. 

There are three basic types of geological formations in the urban area: old 
Pleistocene terrace deposits which are basically sand formations; the Hawthorne 
formation, which is primarily a clay formation; and the Ocala group formations which 
is basically limestone. The latter is found generally in the areas west of (-75 



-6- 



and underneath and south of Paynes Prairie. The cloy formation forms a wide belt 
roughly lying between US 441 and 1-75 and extending eastward to and around Newnans 
Lake. The remaining part of the area is basically covered by the Pleistocene deposits, 
espacially in the Northeast portions of the urban area. 

Two different types of limestone formations characterize the subsurface geology 
of the area. These have been named Avon Park and Lake City. These limestone 
formations alternate in layers of very porous rock formations to very dense and prac- 
tical ly impermeable dolomites and limestones making up the famous Florida aquifer, 
which provides an abundant supply of water for the area. This aquifer is fed, however, 
by water through surface sinkholes which permits pollution of the supply as evidenced 
in this area in the past. 

Most of the precipitation which falls in the urban area eventually is absorbed 
into the underground by way of either Alachua Sink or the Kanapaha Sink with 
only small portions of the surface run-off finding its way via canal to Orange Lake 
and eventually into the ocean. The ability of the sinks to absorb water is inversely 
proportional to the level of the water table. Thu^the higher the water table the 
lower the rate at which the sinks absorb water, with the result being that flooding 
has occurred in the past during heavy storms and periods of high water table. 

The irregular distribution of the rainfall in this area drastically complicates 
the problem of absorbing all surface water through sinks. While an average 
of over 50 inches of rain falls during the year, more than half of this rainfall oc- 
curs from June to September. This rainfall can come in sudden great outbursts, 
which adds substantially to the problems of accommodating the runoff. Another 
factor that greatly Influences the problems of flooding in the area Is the poor per- 
colation of certain types of soils found in the urban area due primarily to a re- 
latively impervious organic hardpan which is found in some flat areas. 



Flooding from run-off water has occurred in three areas in the recent past. 
The first area is in the Southwest in the Sugorfoot Prairie area around Clear Lake. 
This may be attributed directly to the slow absorption of the Kanapaha Sink and 
the ill-defined channels running through the prairie area. The last substantial 
flooding in the area occurred after Hurricane Dora in 1964. A second area which 
flooded at the same time, lies east of Northwest 34th Street south of 8th Avenue 
and is characterised by a poorly defined Hogtown Creek Basin. Flooding also 
occurred in this area In 1970, when in excess of 7 inches of rainfall occurred 
in a short period of time. Flooding has also occurred in the Southwest 13th Street 
area where Tumbling Creek passes under the roadway. This situation was created in 
part by an improper grade of the culvert under this roadway, a problem that has 
since been corrected. 

-7- 



Several areas flooded by standing wafer were outlined in the Physiographic 
Report. Basically, flooding In these areas are the results of poor soil characteristics, 
namely soils which have extremely poor percolation and, therefore, poor absorption 
of what is frequently a very heavy downfall of rain in a short period of time. The 
results can be standing water for substantial periods of time. The generalized soil 
suitability map which is included in this report outlines many of these areas, which 
occur in the soil Groups 3, 4, and 5 (See Map in Appendix). 

The intensity of development, or at least the probable cost of development, 
may be directly related to the type of soils where such development occurs. Wet- 
ness, shrink-swell, trafficability, and bearing values are all characteristics of 

soils which can have limiting effects on development. For example, the shrink- I 

swell characteristics are extremely important in the development of foundations, 
slabs and road pavement. In soil areas of extremely poor shrink-swell charac- 
teristics foundations, roadways, etc., may buckle due to the expansion and 
contraction of the soil. A generalized soil suitability map is included herein, but 
it is emphasized that this map is generalized and the basic value of it should be limited 
to general broad oreas and rwt as a substitute for individual inspection of a specific location. 

Group I soils have no inherent characteristics to deter urban development and 
may be used for residential, commercial, and industrial development or for trans- 
portation without reservation from a soils standpoint. 

The soils in Group II may also be utilized for most types of urban development 
where deep foundations are not required. Limestone occurs at levels varying from 
thirty-five to fifty inches below the surface. At places this limestone may also be I 

capped with a of clay which hinders internal drainage. |^ 

Care must be taken in utilizing the soils in Group III because of their wetness. 
Low intensity development is feasible, however, if the soils are drained and pre- 
cautions are taken against future flooding. Much of the area classified in Group III 
would be well suited for extensive recreational uses. 

The soils in Group IV and V have so many limitations that even low intensity 
urban development would be severely hindered. The soils would be too expensive 
to drain effectively for urban uses and in some cases are not suited for development 
due to high shrink-swell potentials, low trafficability or low bearing values. In 
some places these soils coincide with areas that should be left undeveloped due to 
flood control conditions. It is recommended that in these cases the land be reserved 
as open space. 

Areas designated in Group VI have little value for urban development except for 
recreation purposes and open space. Parks and picnic grounds would be well situated 
along the courses of streams where alluvial deposits occur. These land areas can 
sometimes, be transformed into attractive swimming and picnicking areas. Large areas 
of alluvial deposits along stream channels should be retained in their natural state for 
the purposes of flood control and urban esthetics. 

-8- 



I 



Table 2 in the Physiographic Report gives the suitability of each soil series for 
various urban uses, in using this table it must be remembered that each series is 
classed according to its inherent characteristics. Therefore, a soil classed as 
poor for a given use such as residential rnay be developed for that use with modification of 
its natural properties. 

ECONOMY 

Early Development 

Perhaps the two most significant years in the economic history of this area 
were 1859 and 1905. In the former year the railroad linking Gainesville with 
the Florida East Coast was completed, and in the latter year the City was chosen 
as the location for the University of Florida. 

With completion of the railroad Gainesville became a significant market and 
service center for a broad agricultural region. This agricultural resource remained 
the primary economic base for the area until after World War II. It was not the only 
resource, however, because at one time or another tung oil production, tourism, 
phosphate mining, and processing of wood products played significant roles in the 
economy. Even agriculture varied In its principal crop over the years, with cotton, 
oranges, field crops, livestock and even peanuts either dominating or playing a 
major role in the economy. Throughout this period the University or its pre- /^ 

decessor existed, slowly growing in size and importance until it came to dominate ^ 
the economy of Gainesville and outlying regions. It remains today as the single 
largest force in the economy. Other significant factors have come into the picture 
in recent years to provide basic employment, such as the new Veteran's Hospital, 
Sperry Tube and General Electric. In addition, agriculture remains a significant 
part of the economic base of the community. 

Employment: Growth and Composition 

Resident employment was the measure chosen as a yardstick by which to guage the 
growth of economy in Alachua County in recent years. The Economic Base Study 
was based primarily on county-wide statistics, since they were the only ones readily 
available. Resident employment in 1950 was estimated to be 19,948 and had grown 
36.7% to an estimated 27,277 in 1960. In the next seven years it grew another 38% 
to a total of approximately 37,553. Thus from 1950 to 1967 resident employment is 
estimated to have grown by approximately 88%. The rate of growth, while somewhat 
slower than that experienced by the State of Florida, was far greater than that of the 
nation as a whole. 

The composition of the resident employment varies widely between the County, 
the State of Florida, and the United States. The most significant differences lie in 
the importance of service industries in the State and the County versus the importance 
of manufacturing to the Nation. In both the County and in the State services comprised 
the largest single industry group in both the 1950 and 1960 census, whereas manufacturing 

-9- 



was the largest Industry group for the Nation. 

The significant role of services in the State may be attributed to the tourist 
industry which is the single most important factor in the Florida economy. In the 
County/ however, it is attributed primarily to the fact that education Is listed in 
the census as a service Industry. With the University being the single most im- 
portant factor in the local economy, it naturally follows that the services group 
is the most important industry group. The services group is also the most important 
in terms of new growth during the past two decades. Other industry groups regis- 
tered more significant percentage gains, such as the finance, insurance and real 
estate Industry, but in terms of total numbers they are relatively insignificant by 
comparison. It was estimated that the total services resident employment con- 
stituted 34% of all resident employment in 1950, that it had grown to 44% by 
1960 and stood at just under 50% by 1967. Education, the largest component of 
the service Industry group, was estimated to have grown from 16.8% of the total 
resident employment In 1950 to 22.5% in 1960 and 24. 1% in 1967. Table I 
indicates the estimated resident employment by all major industry groups for 1950, 
1960 and 1967, with projections for 1975 and 1980. 

Each of the major industry groups were examined individually and projections 
were made of the total resident employment through 1980. The results were a 
forecast for total resident employment to increase to 47,350 by 1975 and to 53,515 
by 1980. 

The rate of growth for the County was estimated to be 3.8% for the total 
period from 1950 to 1967. The 1967 to 1980 growth rate is projected at approxi- 
mately 2.7% a year. This compares to an employment growth rate for the nation 
of 1.2% from 1950 to 1965, and a projected growth rate by the National Planning 
Association for the period 1965 to 1985 of 1 .8%. It therefore represents a con- 
tinuation of mjch greater growth than is being experienced nationally, but a slight 
decrease In what has happened recently in the County. 

The forecast called for a gradual leveling off In the rather spectacular rate 
which has been experienced in the past, which can be attributed primarily to the 
conclusion that growth In University enrollment would level off In the coming decade 
However, subsequent to the completion of this forecast, new enrollment projections 
were announced which would supplant the previous enrollment ceilings. This latter 
projection would result In a greater rate of growth for the coming decade than has 
been experienced In the past. It is concluded therefore that the 53,500 employee 
forecast is probably on the conservative side if this latter rate of growth comes to 
past. When this employment forecast was related to overall population growth, 
a projected 1980 Urban Area population figure of 115,400 resulted. It was con- 
cluded that due to the possibility that this forecast was conservative the original 
forecast of 120,000 as found in the Population Study was accepted as the projected 
population for 1980. 



-10- 



o 

00 

o 



OOTtCVIQOOlO CNU-) 

»— ir)txo>o^ coco 
ocNcvjLOou-) cNtn 



c^^^o^oco•— toococNro<Nu-)>o^cou-)vO 
— nrooot^rv.oo»— ooKCN^o — — coo"^ 



O*-— CMIO — CN^OO— '^CM'^ 
CN — — 



in 



CO 



>- 
z 



rv. 
a. 



o o a* o — >o 

-^ — O CO 00 o 

— CNJ hx IT) 00 CN 

— CO — 



CN r^ 

CN K 

— ^ 



>0 IT) >0 lO UO >0 CO 
CN O — -^ 00 o o 
— CN CN >0 CN 00 xt 



COOCO — COCNIO^OOO 
'OIOCNIXOOnCNQOOn 

00-^ — c^>oc^c^O'— 



rv — — -t '- — 



CO 00 — CN CN CO rv 
CN — '^ 



o 

CN 
CO 



u 
< 

X 






vo — ooLooocN coo 

nOoo-^ooioc^ •— o> 

o — •— lorvoo Oncn 

r— CO — 



oorvooio^-orvcoooooooco — rvov 
-<t>o>ooo^co>oiOi^cooohscooco"orv 

— •— — lOCNO^COinOCO'^K— ^OOlOCN 



m — — CO 



— 00 00 •— O — CO 



CO 
lO 
IT) 



CO 



CO 

< 



■^ 00 

1^ o- 

si 

_J OS 

a. ■" 

LU 



9 

to 

LU 



5 

c^ 



-^ o CN ^ CO 00 
CN CN Tj- r\ ^ r— 

CO »— IT) 10 >0 IT) 



CN 



CN 



o 
in 
c^ 



00 CN m -o 

■^ ^ o rv 






58 

m 00 cs< 



CO 



Tt — 



00 •— CO 

rv CN 



00 CN 

■^ Os 



r\hsoo(»>oinin->orv 
cNoo — inrv>ooocNco 

CN-— "— -^CNCOt^' ' " 



P^ 



■^ -3 — O 00 tT 

„ - cNco^m»oco 

i^oo^ocN'— — oo-— 00 

•*» K ^ K ^ K ^ 

CN CN -^ — >0 — — 



CN 3 



rvinoo-^>OTfcNCN — osco<>. 



rv >o 00 

m o ^ _ - , - . - 

— CN— o-inoooco 



socN — cNO^cNrv^rvincNco 



'^ 00 



CO >o tt 



CN 



>0 CN — CO — 



CN 

rv 

CN 



00 



c 
o 

■t- 

_o 
o 

e- 

4- 

c 
>s 

.Si 

-a 

Qi 

c 

0) 



c^ Z 
— X 

IV. 



O 

Z 
< 

I— 
to 



0) 

M 



■te 



£ 

D 



8 1= 

"8 



C7) 

C 



81 

i-g 



c 

4) 

E 

Q. 

'5 
a- 



*. 13 5 o 



8 S 

— Q. 

o 2 

o to 






ell 

5 U. U. 



- "8 



c 
o 

c 
o 

D 
O 

*C 

E 



U 



0) 



c — 
o ~ 



•Z D 



D =5 
t O 

O -jz 



0) 



e 

Q. U) 

X C 

LU •- 

8 J ^ i -z 
^ 1 6 ^ - 



•— ■*- n ^ 



0) 

r 8 

"8 8>a, 

o Q - "g 

5 C D q; Q, 

»— -n C Q) » 

- 8 '-^ -^ - 

o o o 



o *. »- -n 



Pif iS O J 

0) - 



0) 



o 





c 
o 



c 
o 



^iZ 






> 




ices 
Serv 


Servi 
Adm 




^ -D 


c 


c 


d^-o 


tio 
bli 





•^ «- (U 
(U OJ (X 


It 

uj 


^ 


ervic 
Oth 
Hou 


c 



-0 


—1 


U 



>o 



O -^ 

^ LU 

0) 
Q. 
Q. 
O 



t; o 



c 
o 

*> 



o 

c 



o 
o 



c 

*E 

c 
o 



o 
o 



-11- 



commut 



Composition of the projected employment and the estimated employment for 
past years oreshown in Table II and in Chart I. No major structural changes are 
forecast in the general composition. Obvious trends are expected to continue 
such as the decline of agriculture as a percentage of the whole. It should be 
pointed out that rapid changes in the manufacturing sector are possible at any 
time by simple occurance of the location of a major plant in the area. No such 
change could be forecast because factors of location are not subject to advance 
warning. It is believed, however, that as a percentage of the total employment 
picture, manufacturing will generally maintain its relative position, while educa- 
tion is expected to peak and then remain stable. 

Income 

Contrary to the seemingly widespread belief, Gainesville is not the wealthiest 

nunity in Florida. Because of the University payroll, it is comparatively wealthy 

when contrasted with the surrounding basically rural counties. The mistaken 
belief that it is wealthier than it really is may be attributed to various published 
sources of estimated family income which are derived by dividing the total personal 
income by the number of households In the community. This process, however, does 
not take into account the income or numbers of residents added to the community 
in group housing, particularly the University, which result in a higher total personal 
income but fewer households than the typical community. The total household in- 
come is therefore greatly distorted upward. Such estimates appear annually in the 
Sales Management's Survey of Buying Power and various other sources. 

As was the case with employment, the basic geographic unit in which income 
information is readily available is the County. Therefore, the firsthand data in- 
cluded herein is for that geographic unit. However, estimates have been made to 
fit such information to the Urban Area of Gainesville. 

The latest statistical information available Is from themagazine, "Dimensions", 
which Is published by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University 
of Florida, for the year 1967. The total personal income of the County as re- 
corded in that magazine in August, 1969, for the year 1967, was $230,941,000, 
a gain of 305% over the total personal income of $57,024,000 In 1950. This 
percentage gain, however, was not as spectacular as that experienced by the State 
of Florida which increased 375% during the same period. The gain from 1960 to 
1967, as measured in constant dollars, (1957 - 1959 base year) was 68.4%. 

During the same 1960-67 period the per capita income increased 33.8% in con- 
stant dollars, indicating that a material improvement had taken place in the economic 
welfare of the community. Per capita income in 1950 was $999, and had risen 
to $2,534 by 1967 based on unadjusted dollars. On a per capita income basis Alachua 
County has generally ranked from about 15th to as low as 23rd among the 67 

-12- 



TABLE II 

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESENT AND 
PROJECTED RESIDENT EMPLOYMENT 

BY INDUSTRY GROUP 
Alachua County, 1967, 1975 and 1980 



^1967 1975 1980 



Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries 




2.84 


2.41 


1.90 


Mining 




.48 


0.46 


0.48 


Manufacturing 




(8.38) 


(8.03) 


(7.98) 


Furniture, Lumber & Wood Produc 


;ts 


1.56 


1.12 


0.93 


Food & Kindred Products 




2.02 


1.86 


1.81 


Electrical Machinery, Equipment 


& SuppI 


ies 2.37 


2.68 


2.92 


Other 




2.43 


2.37 


2.32 


Transportation, Communications & Utilities 


(3.44) 


(3.12) 


(2.96) 


Railroads & Railway Express 




0.37 


0.27 


0.21 


Trucking & Warehousing 




0.43 


0.43 


0.43 


Other Transportation 




0.50 


0.46 


0.44 


Communications 




1.35 


1.36 


1.37 


Utilities 




0.79 


0.60 


0.51 


Retail Trade 




(15.81) 


(16.50) 


(17.33) 


Food & Dairy Products 




3.64 


3.16 


3.32 


Eating & Drinking Places 




4.15 


3.94 


4.51 


Other Retail Trade 




8.02 


9.40 


9.50 


Wholesale Trade 




2.23 


2.37 


2.38 


Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate 




3.96 


4.17 


4.34 


Services 




(49.98) 


(49.88) 


(49.08) 


Private Household 




4.27 


4.07 


3.02 


All Other Services 




21.66 


19.00 


19.65 


Education 




24.05 


26.81 


26.41 


Local Public Administration 




4.15 


4.64 


5.05 


Construction 




8.75 


8.42 


8.50 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Numbers in ( ) are sub-totals 



Source: Planning Division Estimates 

-13- 



RESIDENT 



S3 ,000 y 



50,000 -- 



45,000 -- 



•• wm 



40,000 ■- 



35,000 -- 



30.000 -- 



25,000 -- 



20,000 -- 



15,000 -- 



10,000 -- 



5.000 -■ 



CHART I 
COMPOSITION OF THE 
EMPLOYMENT, PAST AND 

ALACHUA COUNTY 
l95C-l9eO 



PROJECTED 



PIP^ AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, 
tilllivi AND FISHERIES 

MINING 



MANUFACTURING 

TRANSPORTATION, UTILITIES, 
AND COMMUNICATION 




y^^ RETAIL TRADE 



WHOLESALE TRADE 



iT^Tjr^ FINANCE, INSURANCE, 

:-:':-:'H ani 



ID REAL ESTATE 



'''///'''[ SERVICES 



'.".■.■J LOCAL PUBLIC 
'-"■^iJ ADMINISTRATION 



CONSTRUCTION 








^T^W^ 


<?!!» 








■ A 


';■'■ :'■ 






' % 







[' .y.|;>. ' j ' . v ^; > . 'f x>; 
:<:0:;:0:§-<i:i:: 

l-:o:-fTi':o::r:':o: 



/////////// 

///OTHE« , / , 

//JtRVICES'/ 
//////////J 
//////////, 
//////////J 

//////////> 
//////////I 
//////////> 
'tOUCATIOM'' 



\mm 



i M M ■, H\ 4\,\ HM *« 



/ / 

/ / 

/ / 

' / / 

/ / 

f / / 

/ / 

/ / 

/•/ 

/ / / 

/ / / 

/ / / 

/ / 
/ / / 
' / / 
/ // 
f / / 
f / / 

/ / 
/ / / 
< / / 
/ / / 
' / / 
' / / 
f / / 
' / / 



- * '.* *^* - * 



■ ■■,■■ 
/FTT77 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
/ y / / / / 
////// 
/ / y / / / 

J-/ /t-Ji/ A. 

////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 
////// 



/ / f . 
/ / ' , 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / , 
/ / ' . 
/ 4 / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
^/ X. 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / . 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 
/ / / 



'iVi ' ^iU ^ 



mm 




3c->^:-:o:->i-:-:o:-f 
©:-i-K-x>:-«vC>i 

??-:o:#:o:«:( 



« 1 % Mi» »\ 



>////// / / / / 
'////////f/ 

' / ///////// 

'////////// 

• ////////// 
f////////// 

' /Tlf /r> /// / 



y i ^<v t ^ 





...9:k>;-::<-:':->:-:-: 
0;:t;-:o:-3:0: 

(•:i3):H<:i:>:-:-:<:»:-: 

:o:-;t;-:g:-«-:0: 

<:';>:-i-:bi>:-i:0: 

;C\;G;r-rs'.Cy:i-:) 
;Jt.:Q>:i-:\-.':>:i-.\ 



% ' » ' * \ * ' , < % W * >'f 



'/////////// 

'/////////// 

>/////////// 

/////////// 

^ / / / //////// 
/ / / //////// 
/////////// 

/////////// 

/////////y/ 
/ / ///////// 
/////////// 
/ / / //////// 
f////////// 
/////////// 
//f//////// 
/////////// 
/////////// 
/////////// 
//////^//// 
'/////////4/ 
/////////// 
, /////////// 

*/ *-^/ A^/ f-* / ^ 
'///////// / / 
'/////////// 
'/////////// 

'/'////y//// 

/'///////// 

/////////// 

'/////////// 

' / / ///////// 

'/////////// 
'/////////// 

'/////////// 

'/////////// 

'/////////// 

>/////////// 

'/////////// 

'/////////// 

'/////////// 

/////////// 

/////////// 

/////////// 

//////////y 

_ /////////// 

'/////////// 

'f////////// 

f/////////// 

'/////////// 

•/////////// 

/////////// 



>'^ V*'i < >i ' 4\ 









•//■//- ////// 

/////////// 
/////////// 
/////////// 

/////////// 
/////////// 

'//////////y 

/////////// 

y////////// 

////4////// 

4////////// 

/ / / / / ////// 

/////////// 

. /////////// 

'4////////// 

'/////////// 

'/////////f/ 

///////A/// 

/////////// 

, A / / / / ////// 

'////////y/y 

'A////////// 

'////A////// 

'AAAA////A// 

'A/AA/A///AA 

'AAAAAA///AA 

<U/ <U/ ^UA 4U A 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAA/AAA 

'AAAAAAA/AAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

w AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAY 

AA/AAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAA//AA 

A A AAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAA/AAA 

A A A A A A A / A A A 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAA/AAA/AA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

'AAAAAAAAAAA 

•AAAAAAAAAAA 

'A 'A AAAAAAAAA 

•AAAA/AAA AAA 

•AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA. 

AAAAAAAAAAA 

AAAAAAAAAAA. 

AAaAA-AAAAAA 

/AAAAAAAAA 



'A 




I950 



I960 



I96T 



I9VO 



I980 



source: plannino division estimates 



counties in the State. In 1967 it stood at 15th. This is approximately the same rank 
that the County has held for several years in terms of total personal income. (See 
Chart II.) 

The sources of County income from wages and salaries and other labor income 
(the so called fringe benefits), proprietors income, property income and transfer 
payments, closely resembles the primary resources as reported for thfe Nation as 
a whole. Wages and salaries plus other labor income make up about 65% of this 
total personal income. This differs materially from the State sources which receive 
6% to 7% less from these two categories. On the other hand, the State as a whole 
gets about 17% from property income as opposed to the 10% to 1 1% from the County. 
The State also gets a higher percentage from transfer payments. It may be specu- 
lated that these differences between the County and the State and the Nation are 
due primarily to the larger number of retirees and the differing sources of retiree 
income. 

Table III indicates the major sources of income for workers participating in 
production (mainly wages and salaries, other labor income and proprietor income). 
Note that this table is some $40,000,000 less than the total personal income because 
certain sources are not included. The major difference between the County and 
the State as a whole is readily apparent in that the County gets some 42% of its 
total income for participation and production from government whereas the State 
as a whole receives less than 16% from this source. It may be assumed that this 
difference lies In the presence of the University and Sunland Training Center in 
the community. Tallahassee, which is similar in many respects to Gainesville , 
receives some 49% of its Income from Government. On the other hand, the State 
receives more of Its Income from tourist-oriented categories than does Alachua 
County. This shows up in wholesale and retail trade category, and in transportation 
and communiclation, public utilities and services. It also gets more from 
one non-tourist related category, manufacturing. 

Perhaps a more meaningful basic unit of income is average family or household 
income, which is the primary unit by which money is expended. The census re- 
ports only median family Income as opposed to an average. In 1960 this median 
family Income for the County was $4,741 and was estimated at $5,302 for the 
Gainesville Urban Area. The census Information was utilized to estimate an average 
family Income based on the number of families in the urban area in 1969. This 
estimate was $5,686 for the County as a whole and $6, 154 for the urban area. 

The current estimated average household income was found by dividing the 
total personal Income by the estimated number of occupied households. It was 
first necessary to subtract out that income which is attributable to residents of 
group quarters. Total personal income was available only through 1966 at the 
time the Economic Base Study was completed. Therefore, personal Income for 
1967 was estimated. It has since been found that this estimate was somewhat low. 
For example. In the earlier report the estimated household income was $7,360 for 
January 1, 1968. Based on the actual total personal income it was found that the 

-15- 



CHART U 



#-4,SOO 



4^,000 



3. 500 



3,000 



2,SOO 



2,000 



l,500 



1.000 



INCOME PER CAPITA 

UNITED STATES , FLORIDA . ALACHUA 

AND SELECTED COUNTIES 

I950 — 1066 



500 

































1 
































1 

1 

1 




























/ 


^ 






























/ 






























/ 






























/ 
































/ 






/ 






















53 


6^^-' 


/ 






y 
















> 


-^ 


g; 






y 
/ 


y 














^^^^ 


■^'^^^^ T 








■^ 




/ 




^ 






— - 






^ 






/>^' 


--.^ 




> 

/ 

* 




^.^ 


._.- 


^ 






< 


/ 


.- 


■ 


^.. — ■ 


ApJC 


)\NI»^ 


9^ "" 


.5^^^ 


^ * 
















b^'- 


-- 












>/ 








(UO' 


HOLMES 
/^EST IN I066 






' 











I950 1952 



ie5'4- 



I056 



i95e 



I960 1962 



196-4 1966 



-16- 

source: iuREAU OT BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESCANCHi 

BUSINESS ANP ECONOMIC PtMENSIONt . *•). ■,■•.«, J«M, IM7 

— 4. FL0WIPA STATISTICAt. A»TWACT . I»«« 



* BRAOFORO, COLUMBIA .SILCHRIST, 
LEVY, MARION .PUTNAM, AND UNION 



TABLE III 

PERSONAL INCOME: MAJOR SOURCES OF PERSONAL INCOME RECEIVED BY 
CIVILIANS FOR PARTICIPATION IN PRODUCTION, ALACHUA COUNTY AND 

FLORIDA, 1967 



Alachua 


County 


Floridc 


3 


Amount 


% 


Amount 


% 


($000's) 




($000 's) 
475,000 




7,979 


4.18 


3.93 


677 


0.36 


85,000 


0.70 


13,264 


6.95 


934,000 


7.72 


19,893 


10.42 


2,020,000 


16.70 


27,318 


14.31 


2,499,000 


20.65 


8,369 


4.38 


822,000 


6.79 


6,976 


3.66 


992,000 


8.20 


25,980 


13.61 


2,340,000 


19.34 


293 


0.15 


30,000 


0.25 


80,146 


41.98 


1,902,000 


15.72 



Agriculture 

Mining and Fisheries 

Contract Construction 

Manufacturing 

Wholesale and Retail Tracks 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Transportation, Communications, 
and Public Utilities 

Service, Trade and Professions 

Other Private Industry Payrolls 

Civilian Government Payrolls 

Total 190,895 100.00 12,099,000 100.00 

Source: Dimensions, August, 1969, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University 
of Florida Table 12, page 14. 



-17- 



average household income for Alachua County should have been $7,604. For the 
same date (January 1, 1968) it was originally estimated that the average household 
income of the urban area was $7,965. This average was no doubt slightly over $8,000. 

In order to provide a yardstick by which to measure future commercial needs, 
estimates were made of the total personal income through 1980. These projections 
were made on the basis that income would continue to rise at the same rate as had 
been experienced over the past 5 to 6 years. In addition, adjustments were made 
for the different employment group mix as had been previously estimated. The re- 
sults were slightly in excess of $339, 200,000 for 1975 and $413,900,000 for 1980, 
in constant dollars. That is, the rate of growth does not reflect projected inflation. 
This was desirable because the ratio of sales to square footages which would be used 
later in the study to determine commercial land needs would also be based on current 
do I iars . 

Overall, the estimated increase from 1966 to 1980 was estimated at approximately 
100%. For the urban area the estimated total personal income was just slightly less 
than $300,000,000 for 1975 and approximately $370,300,000 for 1980. This was 
broken down into average household income projections of $9,891 for the County 
and $10,287 for the urban area for the same date and $7,225 for the rest of the 
County which lies outside the urban area. Again, it should be emphasized that these 
figures are based on constant dollars and are therefore much lower than the actual 
averages will be when that date is reached. 

Generally speaking, after examining the economy of the Gainesville Urban Area, 
it was concluded that future stable growth of the community is assured. The pro- 
jections contained in the Economic Base Study were for a slackening of the pace due 
to a then existing enrollment ceiling at the University, but nevertheless for steady 
upward growth. It is now believed that this ceiling will be exceeded, but the 
question remains to what degree. In any event, an upward growth in the economy 
Is assured with the known factors of an increasing enrollment plus now almost cer- 
tain expansion of the Medical Center to provide a stimulus for this growth. 

It is Impossible to predict the occurrence of an economic factor which would 
materially alter the growth rate, such as would occurwith the location of a major 
new factory In the Gainesville Community. It Is believed, however, that the 
manufacturing sector will continue to grow as per the past rate. In the past such 
growth has taken place but has resulted In no considerable increase In employment 
because it replaced existing Industries. As the urban area of Gainesville grows 
larger It Is believed that more growth will take place In the non-university sectors. 
For example, once a given size is reached many of the wholesaling activities which 
are now provided by the larger center of Jacksonville may be expected to relocate 
in the Gainesville Urban Area to service the growing population. In addition, 
recent surveys have indicated a growing pool of underemployed and unemployed 
persons, especially In our lower income neighborhoods. It may be expected that 
eventually some Industry will take advantage of this resource by locating In the 
community. 

-18- 



On the other hand, it should be also noted that there is a growing awareness 
that growth for growth sake alone will not necessarily mecn the best possible community 
for all people. In the past 20 years the community has been basically a university- 
oriented college town. The wage structure as a consequence has been relatively 
high, though not the highest in the State. It is for the citizens of today to decide 
what direction they wish to take in the future in terms of economic and hence over- 
all growth. Such decision must be made on the basis of a knowledgeable examina- 
tion of the implications of growth as it is proposed in the future. 

POPULATION 

It has been said that "the stuff of planning is land and development. The 
purpose of planning is to improve the lives of the people".* 

In order to plan for people certain facts must be known about them, not the 
least of which are numbers, general characteristics and their distribution throughout 
the planning area. Population size is essential as a measure of the amount of growth 
which has taken place and which will presumably take place in the future. Know- 
ledge with regard to the population composition and other characteristics is essential 
to providing a plan which will cater to the needs of the people. Special distribution 
must be ascertained as a guide to the placement of various land uses and facilities 
throughout the area. 

Past Growth 



In 1853 the population of Gainesville was estimated to be 275 people. By 1900 
it had risen to 3,633 and 50 years later (in 1950) the Urban Area population of Gaines- 
ville was estimated to have risen to ten times that figure to more than 36,360. Today 
only 20 years later this figure has more than doubled. 

The actual City population was estimated in the Population Study to have been 62,500 
persons in January, 1968. The urban area population was estimated at the same time to 
be approximately 75,500. These estimates were prepared by a variation of Census Method 
II which is somewhat complicated but reasonably reliable method of estimating current 
population. Subsequent to the completion of the Population Study an accurate count 
of the total number of dwelling units in the urban area was completed in the Planning 
Unit Study . By multiplying the number of dwelling units by the average number of 
persons found In various types of dwelling units, a revised current population was 
derived which was slightly higher than had been found by the census method. This 
latter methodology has again been used to produce a current estimate of 83,000 per- 
sons in the Urban Area. 



* Canty, Donald, (editor) The New City, National Committee on Urban 

Growth Policy, Urban America Inc . , Frederick A. Prayer, publisher. New York, 1969, page 70. 

-19- 



Population CharacterisHcs 

Approximately or>e-fourth of the urban orea population Is composed of students 
at the University of Florida. Knowledge of this fact alone would provide a clue 
to some of the characteristics of the population if no other information were avail- 
able. For example, the average age of the population is consequently lower than 
the State and national overages. The average age of Urban Area residents was esti- 
mated to be about 23 years in January 1967. Because there are more males than 
females at the University there is a larger percentage of males in the total popula- 
tion than females, which is opposite the State and national characteristics. 

The Gainesville Urban Area has experienced a growth rate during the 60's 
which is estimated to be 4 1/2% or more annually, based on current popu- 

lation estimates. An estimated 60% of this growth can be attributed to in-migration 
with the remainder attributed to natural increase. However, this trend does not hold' 
true for the non-white population, most of whose growth has come from natural in- 
crease. The total estimated non-white population in 1967 was estimated to be at 
approximately 18 1/2% of the total, which figure represents a substantial decrease 
of the estimated proportion in 1960. 

The average number of persons per household in 1960 was 3.26. It is believed 
that the average household size declined during the 60's, however, due in large 
part to the fact that more multiple family housing units were being constructed than 
single family housing. In 1960 the average household size for apartments was esti- 
mated at 2.52 versus 3.52 persons for single family households and 2.6 persons for 
mobile home households. Thus the overall average was estimated to be 3.20 persons 
in 1967. A recent survey of the mobile home households has indicated a slight in- 
crease In the number of persons residing in this dwelling type, which may be attributed 
to the fact that more families are now buying mobile homes, whereas in the past 
mobile occupants were mostly students with few children. It is still believed that 
the overall household size Is continuing to decline in line with the overall projections 
contained in the Population Study . If one were to assume the average household 
size for the various types of dwelling units had remained constant the dwelling unit 
mix today would result in an average household size of approximately 3. 15 persons. 

A very Important consideration for an urban area Is the age distribution of its 
population. Chart III, which is an age-sex pyramid for the population inside and outside 
the Urban Area, Alachua County and the State of Florida, vividly demonstrates the 
Impact of University students on this area. Another significant factor pointed out 
by the pyramids Is the much smaller percentages in the retiring ages(65 and over)ln 
the urban area as compared with the State. Generally speaking, Gainesville's loca- 
tion in the northern,cooler part of the State has resulted in attracting fewer retirees 
than Is true of the State as a whole. At the same time the college work-force age 
population is greater, percentagewise, than that of the State. 



-20- 




(0 
0) 



ir 


iL 



(0 
J 
< 

h 





h 



X 

y 

(!) 

I 
u 



< 



< 

q: 
< 

z 
< 
o 

D 

y 

J 
J 

> 

(0 

y 
z 
< 





U H 


■ 


■lal 




1 .1111 






■PT" 




.— m 


-n 1 i 





(0 w 



'tffi'tCD^flft^ffi^OtO^O)^ 



0) 



in 



>a)^^cO(Olnu)'t♦rOl00^cM — 

<,fl0in0ifl0u)0in0u)0io0u)0in7 
CDQD^^<0(0lnln^^lOK)c>^(M — 



UJ 



" lllll 




(0 UJ 



^♦0)^a)^a)*a)^0)*a> 



^J>a)^^(0(Olnln*♦f0^ocMw- 

rf\ Q I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

<i/,Oinou)OiflOinOioOioOa) 



0>^0) 



U) 



I 



I 



i? 



< 

Q 

E 



J 

L 

U. 


y 

ti 

h 

(0 



< 

(0 y 
D q: 

Z < 
1 



> 

h 
z 

D 



Oy 

J 

< -J 

P 

y 
<Z 

<^ 



y 




< 
7 


-.- .11 




y 

iL 


T^ 1 


i 



(0 UJ 






u) u) tn u) 
(0 (D in u) 1* 1- 10 



in in 

to CM w — 



in 



I I 



I 



HI 



0) 
00 

^ 

(0 

tn 

fO 
CM 



CM 
ro 

in 
(0 

(D 

a> 




y 


lit 


J 


' „ 1 


HI 


!:< -■■■■■■■■ 


IL 


Til 1 II 


1 

1 



0) 



«j^CD^^(0(0lnlni•^lOlocMCM — 

<iA0in0ifl0in0in0in0in0in0iA7 
fl)CD^^^O^Olnlni•*to^ocMCM — 3 



in 

(T 
y 
Q 



y 
J 
< 









m 



GO 
(0 

in 

K) 
CM 



i? 



CM 
10 

in 
(0 

00 

0) 





-21- 



Future Population Projections 

The process of forecasting the future population size of the Gainesville Urban 
Area with respect to this plan proceeded along two lines. On the one hand, a 
population holding capacity figure was determined as an outside limit of the total 
population which the urban area could physically support. On the other hand more 
realistic projections of the likely levels of populations were developed. These latter 
projections were aimed at the target date of 1980. The first such projections were 
contained in the Population Study report. Further projections for the same target 
year were prepared in the Economic Base Study . 

As the earlier discussion of this report has pointed out, technological progress 
has proceeded so rapidly as to make long-range forecasts of the traditional type 
somewhat meaningless. It is very difficult to accurately guage a community size 
ten years In the future, let alone 20 or 30 years hence, as has been the case In many 
older master plans. Even the most cursory of examinations, however, would bring 
about a realization that the total population holding capacity, as determined for the 
urban area, would not be accomplished within any reasonable time period. 

The first holding capacity of the urban area as determined In the Planning Unit 
Study was 638,490 persons and was based on the ultimate development of the total 
urban area In accordance with the maximum development allowable under the 
existing zoning patterns and densities. In succeeding studies the total amount of 
land that was devoted or assigned to residential In the Planning Unit Study was sub- 
sequently reduced at each stage of the planning process as land was assigned to 
other uses or found to be unsuitable for development. Upon completion of the first 
preliminary sketch plan the holding capacity was calculated, at which time estimated 
densities were assigned to various areas based on the trends in development In the 
various sectors of the City. For example, the lot sizes were increased considerably 
In those outlining areas where acre lots r>ow predominate. By this process a holding 
capacity of approximately 325,000 persons, not Including all those persons that could 
be housed on the University of Florida campus proper, was found. The holding capac- 
ity of the preliminary plan, as presented, was approximately 335,000 people, again 
not including all those persons that could be housed on the University of Florida proper. 
In round figures then, the plan would accommodate approximately 350,000 people, 
assuming that the recommended densities for various residential areas of the plan were 
adopted. 

It is quite obvious that this overall total capacity will not be reached In the 
time period during which this plan could be considered a viable document. To 
establish some outside parameters on how many people we should consider, a 
secondary target date of 1990 was selected with very generalized projections made 
based on various assumptions with respect to the potential growth rate for the next 
20 years. The results ranged from a high of 204,000 persons, based on a growth 
rate identical to that experienced in the decade of the 60's, to a low of 144,000 
persons based on a growth rate equal to the average annual rate of growth of the 
State for the last ten years. The selected figure which Is used as a long range 
target population was 173,000 persons which would be reached in 1990 should the 

-22- 



same rate of growth which was forecast between 1970 and 1980 continue to 1990. 
This figure then, represents the upper limit on which all facility needs in this plan 
are based. It should be made very clear that long before such date is reached, th 
Plan will no doubt be reviewed and revised to compensate for unforeseen condit" 
and circumstances. 



e 
ions 



(0 
Q 
Z 
< 

(0 

D 



I 
h 



z 



J 

D 
Q. 



Q. 



CHART IV 

PAST a PROJECTED POPULATION 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

I950 - I990 



200 



I 50 — 



lOO — 



50 - 



O — 

'50 



/ 






.^^>' 



1^ 

'60 



'70 



'80 



'9 



VEARS 

SOURCE : DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY OCVELOPMENT ESTIMATES 



-23- 



POLICIES PLAN 

The Regional Plan Association of New York In the text of Its recent, widely 
acclaimed plan for the New York region said: 

"The regional plan is not a precise blueprint of everything that should be 

built mile by mile. It Is a framework of basic principles which can be applied 

over the years when development decisions are to be made. Nothing will F 

happen just from publication of the plan. But a great deal happens when a 

regional - plan principle Is laid alongside a prospective public program or 

private investment so the public can judge the long - term effects." * [ 

The following section of this plan Is a statement of the goals and principles 
to provide or yardstick against which to measure the everyday development | 

decisions that fill the voids in the necessarily generalized plan. They are perhaps 
more Important than the more visable land use plan map which makes up the other 
half of this plan. 1 



f 



* Canty, Donald, Editor, The New City, Urban American Inc., Frederick A. 
Praeger, Publisher, N. Y. 1969, page 75. 



-24- 



RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT 

The Gainesville Area now contains a wide choice of residential development. 
Previously, the area contained a predominance of single family houses. More recently, 
there have been great increases in the construction of apartments and group housing 
and the location of mobile homes throughout the area. 

Most of the recent residential construction has seen single family dwellings 
in the northwest and apartments in the south and southwest. Most of the mobile homes 
are located along Archer Road in the southwest. 

A great deal of the residential development in the Gainesville area has been 
in a scattered, uncoordinated pattern, which not only consumes large land areas but 
allows for through traffic into residential areas; expensive sewer lines are extended 
great distances to serve only a few homes; and shopping facilities are poorly situated 
because of the uncertainty created by the "leap frogging" subdivision development. 

One of the major concerns of planning is the maintenance of residential neighbor- 
hoods at a "livable" level and the protection of residential areas from the encroachment 
of non-residential and incompatible uses. 

Goals for Residential Development 



Efficient and Economic Use of Land 



Land has become an expensive and sought-after commodity throughout this 
country, especially in urban areas. The use of raw land is very important 
because once structures are built and growth patterns established, the money 
invested in land and buildings prohibits a large scale redevelopment of these 
built-up areas. 

The general growth pattern for residential areas around Gainesville has been 
a sprawling type with a great deal of "leap frog" subdivision development. 
This type of growth consumes huge land areas and increases the cost of pro- 
viding public services and facilities. 

In some instances land has developed prematurely creating platted subdivisions 
in which only a few dwellings are scattered. This tends to downgrade the total 
residential character of these areas and consequently the community. 

-25- 



B. A Sufficient Supply of Housing for All Area Residents 

Shelter is a primary need, and providing it is usually an accute problem in 
most urban areas. 

If there is to be housing for "all", present policies will not be able to meet 
the challenge. This is because new housing is primarily aimed at a market 
comprised of persons with above average incomes. Recently there has been 
an effort to provide housing for the poor and aged through rent supplement 
programs and public housing managed by the Gainesville Public Housing 
Authority. 

Situated between those who can afford new houses as they are presently 
provided and those who qualify for public housing is a large segment of the 
population not now being catered to by new construction. There is a need 
for action by both the public and private sector in constructing, improving 
and renovating homes which these families can afford. Housing provided 
in Gainesville must meet the urgent needs of the poor, the aged, the minorities, 
as well as upper and middle income families. 

C. Convenience to Other Activities and Facilities 

Man cannot isolate his home or place of residence from the rest of his environment 
without losing economy, efficiency and physical, intellectual and spiritual 
stimulation. He must have access to work, shopping facilities, recreation, to 
utilities, to police and fire protection and to schools for his children. 

While this convenience is presented as a housing goal, a large part of it will 
have to be provided through action in other policy areas. Policies concerning 
shopping center construction and location, industrial location, open space 
reservation, school buildings, or transportation improvements will have just 
as much to do with such convenience as housing policies themselves. 

The convenience needs of one type of residence may be quite different from 
those of others. In general, principle holds that the higher the density of 
development, the greater should be the proximity to activities and services. 
The convenience needs of one type of resident may be quite different from 
those of other residents. For example, unmarried university students will desire 
to have convenient access to different activities and facilities than many of 
the married "permanent" population. 

D. Safe, Healthful, and Blight-Free Residences and Neighborhoods 

While the explanations of previous housing goals have considered factors 
affecting residential blight, the growth of slums or obsolete and blighted 



-26- 



neighborhoods Is usually related to the age of the neighborhood. A large 
part of central Gainesville is presently in a condition where rehabilitation 
and/or renewal may be necessary to correct the situation. By 1980 additional 
areas may be in this condition unless positive, corrective action is taken. 

The rehabilitation and renewal of existing blighted neighborhoods can be 
undertaken by the City on a limited basis. This is due to the fact that under 
existing legislation, land in the renewal project areas can only be put to 
public re-use, which would include schools, recreation parks and playgrounds, 
etc. Therefore, any extensive renewal, especially for private re-use of land, 
would have to be completed through private enterprise. 

In addition to revitalizing the blighted neighborhoods , there must be a concerted 
effort to prevent blight and its influences in our stable neighborhoods. The 
enforcement of the Gainesville Housing Code is one method of preventing 
blight In all areas of the community. This is a code which defines the minimum 
standards for housing conditions in the City. 

It appears that more emphasis in the future must be given to prevention of decay 
through both public and private efforts. This would go a long way in revitalizing 
old neighborhoods by improving their quality and appearance, strengthening their 
property values, and maintaining these areas as desirable places in which to live. 

Most of this activity is expected to occur in the City of Gainesville with very 
little rehabilitation or renewal activity occurring in the outlying areas. Never- 
theless, decay in the central area is not exclusively a central area problem. It 
also affects the vitality of the outlying areas and should be conducted as an area 
wide consideration. 



Principles of Residential Development 

Premise A: 

Residential areas are the most important to local residents because this is where 
the family spends most of its time and where most families have invested a large 
part of their incomes. 

Principles 

1 . The general high quality of existing residential areas should be maintained and 
improved whenever possible. 

-27- 



2* Future residential development should be planned and designed to insure 

an initial and continued residential quality so as to protect the investment 
of property owners and public investments in services and facilities. 

3. Residential areas which contain blighted and sub-standard conditions and 
housing should be improved through conservation, rehabilitation, and re- 
development by both public and private initiative. 

4. Scattered and disorderly residential development caused by premature 
subdividing should be discouraged and prevented. 

Premise B: 

The ever-increasing costs of land, building materials, construction and 
community services in conjunction with a change in living patterns have 
created a large demand for apartments and mobile homes. These trends 
are expected to continue with an increasing number of new apartments 
and mobile homes, and a reduction in single family dwelling construction. 
New innovations in residential development have been introduced in recent 
years. These include cluster subdivisions and planned unit developments 
which are normally developed on large tracts of land on a total project 
basis. 

Principles: 

1 . Abrupt changes in housing types should be discouraged where such changes 
will adversely affect the property values of adjoining properties. 

2. Mixed dwelling types and housing densities should be permitted in those 
areas where prior planning will permit such a mixture. 

3. Adequate sites, both in number and location, should be provided for the 
increasing demand for mobile homes. 

4. Mobile home parks should develop at lower densities with adequate parking, 
open space, and buffering between adjacent uses. 

5. New inrwvations in mobile horn* development such as platted subdivisions similar 
to single family developments should be encouraged. 

6. Low density apartments with the same number of units per acre as single 
family subdivisions should be encouraged in outlying areas. 



-28- 



Duplex dwellings should be permitted to intersperse among single family 
dwellings in areas where these types of dwellings are compatible. 

New residential development should promote new innovations m housing 
types and residential design such as cluster subdivisions, planned unit 
development, cooperative apartments, and other contemporary innovations 
such as modular or factory produced housing. 



Premise C: 

Residential areas are intended to provide a quiet, peaceful, and safe 
place for residents to establish their homes and raise their families. 
These areas are kitended for living and the activities closely associated 
with raising a family such as schools and recreation areas. Most non- 
residential uses of land are to some degree Incompatible with residential 
land use. 

Principles: 

1 . Existing and future residential areas should be protected against the 
encroachment of undesirable or unsuitable uses, permitting only those 
activities that serve the residential areas directly. 

2. Through traffic should not be permitted in homogeneous residential 
neighborhoods. 

3. Local shopping activities should be provided in locations convenient to 
residential areas. 

4. Living areas should be conveniently located relative to major shopping 
facilities, work areas, cultural facilities, and leisure time facilities. 

5. Residential and non-residential uses should be discouraged from locating 
adjacent to one another. 

6. Where It is impossible to separate residential from non-residential land 
uses, buffering should be encouraged to lessen the impact between the two. 



-29- 



Such buffering may take the form of: 

(a) Physical barriers - such as hedges or greenbelts, walls, fences, 
an open space separation left in its natural state, or 

(b) The placement of another use between the incompatible uses which 
would be more compatible to the uses on either side. (Such as a 
low intensity office between commercial and residential areas.) 

7. High density residential development should be encouraged to locate near 

concentrations of non-residential activities such as the University of Florida 
and the Central Business District, and adjacent to major traffic arteries. 



COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 

The development of commercial land has greatly changed in this country over 
the years. At one time pedestrian traffic dictated the growth pattern, but now it is 
geared almost exclusively to the needs and demands of the automobile. While 
pedestrian movement inside shopping centers and within the CBD are important factors, 
parking needs, flexibility of site choice resulting from freedom of movement and one 
stop shopping are all dominant factors in the development of today's commercial 
growth pattern. 

These auto generated characteristics have led to the evolution of the shopping 
center as the principal development pattern of commercial land use. This evolution 
is far from complete, however, as certain uses have continued to locate along major 
traffic arteries on individual sites, with their only concession to the shopping center 
concept being in the form of larger lots with more parking than before. This latter 
type of commercial land use pattern — frequently termed "strip commercial" — 
has generally led to the reservation of most land on all major traffic arteries for 
commercial development. This reservation, whether actually zoned for commercial 
use or only held vacant by the owner in hopes of such future use, not only greatly 
exceeds any logical demand for such land, but frequently is ill located to serve the 
actual demand as development proceeds further out into the suburbs. In addition, 
those areas for which there is a demand and on which development occurs often die 
of selfstrangulation as over-development clogs the traffic on which they are dependent. 



-30- 



Goals For Commerical Development 

A. Adequate Supply of Goock and Services 

The population of the urban area has a purchasing power and demand or 
need for a given level of goods and services which should be met locally 
to the maximum extent possible. It is an objective of this Plan to assure 
the fulfillment of this need by providing adequate, convenient sites for 
the outlets which cater to this purchasing power or need. 

B. Varied Sites Suitable for a Variety of Outlets 

The need for suitable sites to provide for the many varied outlets for goods 
and services spans an extremely wide range in size and location. It varies 
from the single use on a major thoroughfare which relies almost exclusively 
on passerby traffic, such as a tourist facility, to a range in shopping centers 
from the smallest convenience center to the large regional facility serving 
a larger area than even that considered in this plan. 

C. Functional, Safe, Attractive Design and Display 

Many successful businesses attract attention to themselves through distinctive 
store design, advertising or display. While individually such displays may 
not be offensive, when included with others the results have an unsightly, 
cluttered effect. 

Commercial centers are also important focal points, usually located on the 
major thoroughfares of the community. Their appearance is therefore a 
community interest which should be considered in the comprehensive plan. 

D. Minimum Conflict With Other Urban Activities 

Shopping areas are among the busiest places in the urban area, with their 
basic success often measured by the traffic they generate. This level of 
activity with its attendant noise, odors, dirt, glare and safety hazards 
frequently conflicts with other uses which have less intense nature, partic- 
ularly that of the residential sector. It is therefore a very basic objective 
of this plan to minimize such conflict. 

E. Effective Use and Development of Old Centers 

Commercial areas, like all other uses, can become obsolescent with age. 
With such obsolesence come blight with attendant cost not just to the 
owners of the property but to the community at large. A goal of this plan 
is to encourage the conservation of such areas in keeping with old adage that 
an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. 

-31- 



Principles of Commercial Development 

Premise A: 

Commercial activities are oriented to the automobile. 
Principles: 

1. Location 

Commercial activities will be located on major streets and particularly 
at the intersections of such major streets and central to their service area. 

Local access streets by their design and nature should not carry the non- 
local traffic associated with commercial development. Concentrations of 
commercial at intersections distributes the traffic to and from such con- 
centrations over the largest possible street network and is therefore to be 
desired when such streets are designed to handle such traffic. 

2. Access 

Access to and from commercial sites should be carefully designed and located 
so as to minimize friction with the flow of traffic on the adjacent thoroughfares, 

All access points on a street by their nature create points of conflict with 
the flow of through traffic causing delay, reducing the street capacity and 
creating hazards. A site should be easy to enter and safe to leave. 

3. Parking 

Commercial activities must be provided with ample parking to satisfy the 
demands of all customers of that activity. 

If less parking than needed is provided it is detrimental to the welfare of 
that activity as well as the general community. Vacant stores resulting from 
insufficient parking are a blighting influence, and public streets designed to 
carry traffic can become extremely expensive parking lots. 

4. Concentration of Uses 

Concentration of both similar and complementary uses are encouraged to the 
extent that such grouping promotes a more efficient, viable and logical use 
of land. 

-32- 



Cerfain uses frequently lend strength and support to each other when grouped 
together, and therefore are encouraged, unless such concentrations are at 
the expense of adequate service to the whole area, or by design or nature 
become a burden on the area where they are located. 



Premise B: 



Basic conflicts occur where two different uses of land meet, with the extent 
of such conflict varying with the difference in intensity of each use, aesthetic 
qualities, the amount of buffering provided between such uses and many other 
factors. 

Principles: 

1. Location 

Incompatible land uses will not be located adjoining to one another without 
sufficient buffering to insure the harmonious existence of both uses. 

2. Transitional Uses As Buffers 

When not contrary to any other principal set forth herein, incompatible land 
uses may be buffered by transitioned uses more compatible with the use on each 
side; for example, offices or multiple family may be used to separate single 
family areas from commercial area. 

3. Screening 

Screening by walls and/or landscaping will be required where other separation 
is not possible. 

4. Layout 

A rear to rear arrangement between incompatible land uses will be promoted 
in deference to a front to front or front to rear relationship. The latter two 
shall be avoided whenever possible with a side to rear relationship permitted 
only where absolutely necessary. 

Premise C: 

Shopping centers are the principal development pattern in retailing today. 



-33- 



Principles: 

1 . Encouragement of Shopping Centers 

Because shopping centers more logicolly adhere to modern standards in 
commercial development, particularly in recognizing the importance of 
the automobile in their design, they are to be encouraged in preference 
to scattered, unconcentrated and unplanned commercial development. 

2. Shopping Center Types 

The size, location and function of shopping centers should be related 
to the population and market area they are to serve. 

The basic types of centers are: 

(a) Local Convenience - a very small center typically with a 
convenience (7-1 1) type store as the major tenant. 

(b) Neighborhood - a convenience outlet with a supermarket 
typically as the major tenant, along with a drugstore and other 
personal service stores. 

(c) Community - a center usually having a junior department or 
variety store as the major tenant, combined with a supermarket 
and other convenience outlets and providing some comparison 
shopping. 

(d) Major - a major shopping complex providing comparison shopping 



with one or more major department stores as major tenants. 



Premise D: 



Not all future commercial activities will be located in planned shopping 
centers. 

Principles: 

1. Development of Vacant Commercial Land 

Non-center commercial uses should be encouraged to locate on those vacant 
parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the needless 
opening up of new areas to strip commercial. 



-34- 



2. Sites for Marginal Uses 

The legitimate needs of marginal or so called "incubator" commercial 
enterprises can best be served by the "filtering down" process of existing 
commercial, as opposed to opening up new areas to commercial development. 

3. Spread of Commercial 

The existence of commercial on one corner of an intersection need not 
dictate the development of all corners with the same or similar use; 
nor does the existence of commercial on a major thoroughfare dictate 
that all frontage must be similarly used. 

Premise E: 

Commercial activities frequently occupy the most conspicuous sites in an 
area, and are important influences on the impression which others have 
of that area. 

Principle: 

1 . Appearance 

The control of signs, promotion of landscaping and overall appearance 
of commercial areas are legitimate concerns of the general public. 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 



Industrial development in the Gainesville area has varied over the years. 
Industrial activities initially involved the processing of agricultural and forest 
products and phosphate extraction. Industry in this area now has evolved to light- 
manufacturing and warehousing. 

An expansion of the community's Industrial base is a matter of concern. Civic, 
business and governmental representatives frequently meet with business and Industrial 
officials in other states for the purpose of attracting Industry to Gainesville. There 
are other residents in the Area who feel that industrial expansion should not be encouraged 
and that Gainesville become only a university city. 



-35- 



Goals for Industrial Development 

1. Enough Industry to Meet Industrial Employment Needs 

Industry plays an important role as a source of employment for local 
residents and adds to the tax base. Industry is not one of the largest 
employers but it does add stability to the areas' employment situation. 

Florida is increasingly becoming more Industrialized and there are a 
wide variety of industries locating in the state. It is expected that 
the urban area will expand and that nev/ firms will locate In the area 
to keep pace with future population and labor force increases. 

2. Adequate Supply of Industrial Land Suitable For Both Industry and the 
Community 

The industries which may locate in the area In the future will require 
adequate amounts of land suitable to their particular needs. Land must 
have certain characteristics before it can be considered adequate for 
industrial purposes. 

There are three essential criteria which sum up the locatlonal needs for 
Industry. The first, which far outweighs the second and third, Is good 
access. In selecting a site, proximity to good highways Is usually a 
primary criterion. Secondly, industrialists normally locate near other 
firms in their manufacturing process. Thirdly, Industrial developers look 
for land suitable from a physical development standpoint; that Is, a site 
that Is large enough for their needs, preferably flat, stable, well drained, 
and not subject to flooding. 

3. Minimization of Industrial Blight and the Blighting Effects of Industries 
on their Neighbors 

Because of its nature. Industry is not only subject to the same type of 
blight that affects other land uses, it often Is particularly capable of 
causing other blight. The explanations of previous goals have indicated 
how Industries can be sited and regulated so they do not disturb surrounding 
areas. Generally, Industry should be located In areas that are predominantly 
industrial where it will not put too heavy a load on the transportation system. 

-36- 



On the other hand, blight has been caused by the mixing of land uses 
in predominantly industrial areas. Industry's peculiar needs segregate 
it from other uses. Industrial uses slx)uld not be mixed with such uses 
as various retail commercial activities and residential development. 
Industry should be separated from these other uses whenever possible. 
As a general rule, from the community point of view, industrial parks 
are the best sites for almost all industries because they provide the 
necessary separation. 

Principles for Industrial Development 

Premise A: 

The industrial base will continue to grow in the Gainesville area at a 
moderate rate with the expansion of existing facilities and the addition 
of new "light industrial" firms. 

Principles: 

1 . Expansion of industry should be encouraged on a selective basis. 

2. Sufficient land area in proper locations should be reserved to meet the 
anticipated expansion of industry. 

3. Industrial development should be located on relatively flat, well drained, 
stable soils, and should be provided with adequate utilities. 

4. Industrial sites should be convenient to major transportation facilities and 
should be so located as to minimize the journey to work. 

5. Access to industrial sites should be designed so as not to inhibit the move- 
ment of through traffic on major thoroughfares. 

6. Industrial sites should be designed and buffered so as to minimize conflicts 
with adjacent land uses. 

7. Industrial zoning should be exclusive rather than inclusive so as to protect 
industrial development from encroachment by commercial in other non-related 
land uses. 

Premise B: 

The current and expected future trend in industrial development is occuring 
in industrial districts or parks, in attractive, well designed buildings where 
various industries locate near one another because of their similar 



-37- 



and complementary site needs and operating characteristics. There are 
a limited number of industrial concerns which will locate on individual 
sites separate from industrial districts because of their operating characteristics 
or space requirements. 

Principles: 

1. Industrial plants should be encouraged to group together in planned 
industrial districts on sites capable of being developed in stages. 

2. Streets within industrial districts should be designed to accommodate 
the movements of large trucks and employee vehicles. 

3. Areas for loading and unloading of materials, outdoor storage areas, 

and parking for employee and company vehicles should not be allowed in 
the front of industrial plants and should be adequately screened from 
public view by screening walls, landscaping, or other suitable barriers. 

4. Advertising and identification signs for industrial development should be 
complimentary to such development in terms of the size, construction, 
location, and maintenance of said signs. 

5. Scattered industrial plants should be encouraged to locate on adequate 
sites, adjacent to major transportation facilities, and should be designed 
and buffered so as to minimize conflicts with adjacent land uses. 

6. Industrial blight should be eliminated through physical rehabilitation 

of structures, relocation or removal of unsightly and obnoxious elements 
on the site, or the replacement of old equipment anci/or facilities. 



TRANSPORTATION 



The Inter-dependence of land use and the circulation system which serves It 
is perhaps the most basic relationship of community development. Each exerts a 
compelling Influence on the other; if you build a major transportation system, land 
use development will usually spring up along it; if you build a major land use develop- 
ment, ultimately a circulation system will evolve to serve It. Recognition of this 
relationship is essential to the planning for any urban area. It Is also essential to 
recognize the multl -faceted and interrelated nature of the circulation system as a 
whole. Including the street and road network, which caters to the automobile, mass 
transit facilities and air, rail and other long distance transportation facilities. 

-38- 



The Gainesville Urban Area is presently served by a street and highway network, 
which serves both locally and includes a major freeway facility that provides connections 
with the major highway system of the nation; it is served by "feeder airline" services 
which provides connecting services with major air transportation facilities; it is served 
by railroad freight service and by interstate bus systems, and finally, it is served 
locally with a bus system and taxi service. Each of these systems plays a vital role 
in the total circulation network. 

In the future, as the area grows in size and complexity, the safe, economical 
and convenient movement of goods and people will in large measure determine the 
desirability of the Gainesville Urban Area as a place to live. 

Goals for Transportation 



1 . Ease of Movement Throughout the Urban Area 

Provision for the safe, economical and convenient movement inside, through, 
and interconnections with the outside is a first priority objective of any plan 
for the future. Without ease of movement growth cannot be sustained and 
living itself becomes a more frustrating experience. 

2. A Variety of Modes of Travel to Meet the Different Needs of Different People 
and Activities 

The private automobile has become the most universal mode of transportation 
in the urban area. It can be expected that this dominance will continue in 
the future. Not everyone can drive, nor is it always feasible to adequately 
accommodate all automobiles within the limits of the fiscal restraints on most 
communities. Therefore, provision should be made for circulation by other 
means to accommodate those people, or goods, which do not travel by auto- 
mobile. More specifically, the need will continue for mass transit facilities 
to serve the local needs such as the bus system, and to serve the long 

distance transportation needs such as the airline, interstate bus and train systems, 
Each system should be examined in depth to accurately determine the best 
overall circulation network for the area. 

Principles of Transportation 



Premise A: 



The automobile will continue to be the dominant transportation mode in the 
area, necessitating emphasis on the street and highway network serving the 
urban area; however, as the urban area grows in size an increased demand 
for mass transportation may be expected. 



-39- 



Principles: 

1 . The urban area should be served with comprehensive street network which 
is designed to separate traffic by its major function or purpose - such as 
through vs local traffic and local residential access vs. movement between 
two points. 

2. The major thoroughfare system should provide safe and easy access to and 
from and between all parts of the community. 

3. To the maximum extent possible automobile and pedestrian traffic should 
be separated, particularly in those areas where children are likely to 
be, such as around schools, parks and playgrounds and in the residential 
areas of the community. 

4. The major thoroughfare system should be designed not only to serve existing 
land use but to stimulate future land use patterns according to the future 
land use plan. 

5. The development of the circulation system for the automobile must include 
provision for the storage of said automobile when not in use. 

6. Streets should be designed to carry traffic and not serve as expensive tax- 
payer provided parking lots. 

7. Residential streets should be designed only to provide access to local 
properties and not to carry traffic through residential areas. 

8. Access points on all streets should be kept to a minimum so as to minimize 
conflict with the flow of traffic on that street. 

Premise B: 

Automotive and truck transportation alone cannot fulfill the need for a 
rounded circulation system for the urban area. 

Principles: 

1 . An efficient and economical transportation system calls for a balance 
between road, rail and air, auto and mass transit systems, and should 
be based on an analysis of costs and benefits. 

2. No segment of the population, such as those with very low incomes, should 
be left completely without means of movement in the urban area, even if 

a subsidy at the community expense is required. 

-40- 



3. Long distance transportation systems provide real benefits to the community 

and should be strengthened to the extent that cost/benefit studies determine. 



RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE 



Recreation holds a position of high Importance in American life today. As 
the amount of man's leisure time increases, the demand for recreation areas and 
facilities also increases. 

Another important consideration is the preservation of areas of national 
beauty in a time of fairly rapid urban growth. In order to preserve areas of natural 
beauty and open spaces in a period where they are rapidly disappearing, public and 
private agencies throughout the nation are recommending the local agencies utilize 
every available means to either initiate or enforce more stringent controls over the 
development of certain areas. 

Goals for Recreation and Open Space 



1. Satisfaction of the People's Outdoor Recreation Needs 

The Gainesville area has a fine natural setting for outdoor recreation. 
The climate, lakes, streams ponds, wooded areas, and rolling terrain 
all offer a great deal of potential . 

The City of Gainesville has made great strides in providing outdoor 
recreation for area residents in the past few years. Yet, despite this 
progress, much more needs to be accomplished. Several areas which 
are now developed require additional recreation facilities. Several 
other areas will be developing in the next decade and will require 
recreation facilities. 

2. Conservation and Effective Use of Natural Landscape Qualities 

The Gainesville area is expected to continue to grow with residential, 
commercial, industrial, transportation, and community facilities uses 
utilizing large tracts of land. Among the dangers of such a development 
is the threatened loss of the natural environment, both by making the 
open countryside inaccessible to many area residents and by eliminating 
natural features within the built-up area. 

Not-with-standing its value to recreation, open space should often be 
preserved for its own sake or for the sake of related development. By 
its own beauty and contrast with development, open space often sets off 



-41- 



nearby structures and lends beauty to adjacent built-up areas. Open 
space also provides refuge for wild animals and plants, which should 
be conserved not only for the sportsman and outdoorsman, but for science, 
education and the preservation of the balance of nature. Historic sites 
also have an educational value and are sources of community pride and 
consciousness. Flooding in certain portions of the Urban Area from time 
to time illustrates the danger of allowing development to encroach on 
flood plains or occupy water storage areas. 

3. An Early Program of Acquisition of Open Space and Recreation Facilities 

Immediate steps to implement a planned program of acquisition, by whatever 
means necessary, of a comprehensive system of open spaces, parks, green 
belts and often recreation facilities, as outlined in goals one and two shall 
be given top priority. Desirable land worthy of preservation must be purchased 
in advance of urbanization if the cost of same is to be within the fiscal 
possibilities of local government, and if such features are to be preserved 
from development themselves. As the prestigious New York plan, which 
was just recently completed, notes, it is essential that land for open space 
to accommodate the needs at full growth should be purchased now. 

Principles of Recreation and Open Space 

Premise A: 

Residents in the Gainesville Area will have an increasing amount of leisure 
time requiring a variety of both public and private recreation facilities. 
The City of Gainesville will continue to provide public recreation facilities 
and various semi-public and private facilities will be developed from time 
to time to complement the public facilities. 

Principles: 

•1 . Planning for recreation parks and facilities should be based initially upon 
comprehensive and thorough evaluation of existing facilities; therefore 
periodic review, re -evaluation, and revision of long range plans should 
follow. 

2. Land for recreation purposes should be purchased on a planned basis in 
advance of the need for this land. 

3. The parks and recreation system should serve all age groups at the neighborhood 
and community level. 

4. The parks and recreation system should be developed to provide for a variety 
of recreation pursuits and to produce a relief in the physical pattern of the 
community. 

-42- 



5. The location, size and design of recreation areas and facilities should 
be related to the size and age grouping of the population to be served, 
but these areas and facilities should be flexible so as to be adaptable 
to changes in the populations served and programs offered in order to 
meet changing needs. 

6. Wherever possible, for purposes of efficiency and economy, unnecessary 
duplication of facilities should be avoided through coordination and 
combination vvith Alachua County School facilities. 

7. Recreation parks should be lands dedicated and held inviolate in per- 
petuity, protected against diversion to non -recreation purposes and 
against invasion by inappropriate uses. 

8. Whenever possible and feasible, the natural landscape qualities of 
developing land should be preserved to enhance development and maintain 
a balance of nature. 

9. The purity of natural open spaces, lakes, streams, and ponds should be 
maintained and preserved because of their value to the area. 



COMMUNITY FACILITIES 



In modern urban society, the provision of water, sewers, electric powers, 
police and fire protection, education, library services, hospital care, and other 
basic needs are recognized as community responsibilities being provided directly or 
closely regulated by government. The level of public service in the Gainesville 
area has been fairly high. Most of the public facility needs are provided by 
combined forces In providing services on a joint basis. 

Goals for Community Facilities 

1. Adequate and Efficient Service 

Service results from the provision, management, and use of facilities. To 
provide for the needs of the area's growing population, such facilities 
should be expanded according to design and demand. In many Instances 
facilities have been provided long after the need for them is present, which 
has resulted in Inadequate and inefficient service. 

2. Fair Distribution of Costs and Benefits 

A serious problem affecting the provision of public services and construction 
of facilities Is the question of equity: Who is going to pay for what? Simply 
stated, equity means "fair". In the computation and apportionment of costs 

-43- 



for public facilities this means that persons should pay in proportion to 
benefits received. 

This has become a serious problem in the Gainesville area because of the 
rapid growth and development of land adjacent to the City. Most of the 
residents residing just outside the City obtain their livelihoods within the 
City and receive the benefit of many City services, but they do not directly 
participate in the financing of these services. City taxpayers currently 
pay for fire calls to areas adjacent to the City. City tax dollars provide 
recreation facilities which are available to persons living outside the City 
on the same basis as City residents. 

Principles for Community Facilities 

Schools 

The public schools in the Gainesville Area have experienced a rapid increase 
in students in recent years. New schools are currently under construction 
or are being planned and most existing schools are being ot have been expanded 
to accommodate current and future student education demands. 

Premise 

There will be a continued growth in the number of school age children in 
the Gainesville Area necessitating the expansion and construction of 
existing and new school facilities by the public school system. 

Principles: 

1 . Land for school purposes should be purchased on a planned basis in advance 
of the need for this land. 

2. Elementary schools should be located as near as possible to the center of 
areas served, on less heavily traveled streets. 

3. Junior high schools should be located near the center of areas served, 
on collector streets. 

4. Senior high schools should be located near the center of areas served, 
on major thoroughfares. 

5. The joint use of school facilities for education and other community 
purposes such as recreation should be encouraged. 

-44- 



STANDARDS FOR SCHOOL PHYSICAL PLANT FACILITIES 
ALACHUA COUNTY 
December, 1967 





Maximum 




Pupil 


Type 


Capacity 


Elementaty 


678* 


Junior High 


1,200 


Senior High 


1,600 



Mi-nimum 


Site 


Size 


15 acres 


25 acres 


40 acres 



* Does not include kindergarten students which most frequently go on double 

shifts. They usually number 50 pupils per elementary, for a total capacity of 728, 

Source: Updating of Survey of School Plants, Alachua County: December, 1967 

State Department of Education. 
Public Utilities: 

The City of Gainesville has provided major public utilities in this area for 
many years. These utilities include electricity, water, and sewer. There 
are private utility concerns which also provide major utility services in the 
Gainesville Area, but the Gainesville Utilities Department provides the most 
comprehensive service to a larger portion of the area. 

The provision of utilities is one of the most important factors facing future 
growth and development in the area. These facilities cost high sums of 
money to construct and maintain. They are also a necessity for urban growth 
because of their vital role in every phase of human activity. 

Most of the Urban Area is now served with electricity and a large percentage 
of the built-up area has public water and sanitary sewerage facilities. 

Premise: 

As the Gainesville Area continues to develop it will be served with electricity, 
water and sewer and the Gainesville Utilities Department will continue to 
provide a majority of these services. 

Principles: 

1 . The utility system should be designed to provide the maximum in flexibility 
within the system and to the user. 



-45- 



2. Power and telephone lines should be buried underground where practical and 
economically feasible. 

3. The location of utility lines should be determined by subdivision design and 
the relative costs of alternative locations. 

4. Utility services should be extended to everyone in the area where it is 
economically feasible to do so. 

5. The duplication of utility service in a given area should be discouraged whenever 
possible. 

6. Utility services should be provided by one comprehensive authority rather 
than by several smaller uncoordinated companies. 

7. The future extension of power and telephone lines should be completed in 
a manner so as to preserve the beauty of the area served. 

8. The development of the major utility systems should be coordinated with 
an overall plan for long-range area growth. 

Police Services: 

The Gainesville Police Department, Alachua County Sheriff's Department 
and the Florida Highway Patrol all provide police protection to parts of 
the Gainesville area. The University of Florida also maintains a campus 
police department. 

The quality and efficiency of police protection in a community is greatly 
affected by the growth pattern. For example, it is more difficult to 
provide services to a scattered pattern of residential and commercial 
development than to a more coordinated and comprehensive community 
growth pattern. 

Premise: 

The Gainesville Area will continue to be protected with police service 
and the Gainesville Police Department will provide police service to all 
ports of the City. 

Principles: 

1 . The Police service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of 
future growth. 

-46- 



Fire Service: 



The Gainesville Fire Department serves the entire area within the Gainesville 
Corporate Limits. The Department serves areas outside the City on a voluntary 
basis with responses to fire calls left to the responsibility of the fire chief. 

Continued growth in the Gainesville area places additional responsibilities 
on the fire department. Again, as with the police service, the pattern of 
community gowth has an effect on the quality and efficiency of fire service. 



Premise: 

The Gainesville Fire Department will continue to provide fire protection 
inside the City and the future fire districts and service areas will be determined 
according to recommendations of the American Insurance Association. 

Principles: 

1 . Land for fire stations should be purchased on a planned basis in advance 
of the immediate need for this land. 

2. Fire stations should be located central to their services areas with convenient 
access to major streets. 

3. The fire service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of future 
growth . 

Library Services: 

The Gainesville Public Library serves all of Alachua County. 

The central library in Gainesville serves as the administrative center 

for this area. 

Library service varies according to the type area being served. Some of 
the factors which are important to library service are population characteristics, 
new urban development, changes in reader interest, establishment of new 
employers, and technological changes. 



Premise: 



There will be an increasing demand for expanding library facilities as the 
Gainesville area grows. This demand may require the establishment of branch 
libraries at some time i n the future. 



-47- 



Principles: 

1 . Land for branch libraries should be purchased on a planned basis in advance 
of the need for this land. 

2. Branch libraries should be located near the center of areas they serve. 

3. Library service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of 
future growth. 



-48- 



LAND USE PLAN 

The major uses of land can be divided into any of many different categories for 
examination and study. Generally these include at least the following: Commercial, 
Industrial, Residential, Public and Semi-public and Transportation or Circulation. 
These are the major categories discussed herein, except that public and semi-public 
uses ore divided into recreation and open space and other community facilities. 

COMMERCIAL 



No element of the land use plan is more important, causes more concern, or 
receives more attention than commercial . This is deservedly so, for by any yard- 
stick it has the greatest impact, for good or bad, on the growth of the community 
of any single land use category. The reasons for this are many. Perhaps three of the 
more important are related to problems of location, the problem of surplus commercial 
zoning and excessive speculation in commercial property, and the conflict between 
modern retail standards and obsolete land uses practices. 

Because it is extremely difficult for local government to insure good design, 
that is, the proper integration of commercial land uses into a neighborhood, there 
has always been a dichotomy between the equally desired ends of commercial which 
is located convenient to the people it serves, and the necessity of avoiding conflicts 
between incompatible land uses. 

One of the oldest planning concepts is that local convenience goods and ser- 
vices should be located near the population it serves. This is a logical concept 
in that such is the meaning of convenience and it avoids certain city-at-large ex- 
penses such as the necessity of providing extra sfreet capacity, which would be required 
if people had to travel long distances from their residences to do their shopping. 

On the other hand, commercial land uses can be characterized as being 
generally much more intensive thanan residential land use. They therefore entail 
the production of more noise, glare, odor, and general action or commotion, which 
conflicts with the desire for peace and quiet in one's residence. 

There are no obvious solutions to this conflict of goals, that is, the minimization 
of incompatibility and provision of convenience at the same time. Certain steps may 
be taken, however, to minimize the differences. These are outlined in some detail 
in the Policies Plan section of this report. Generally speaking, it entails the location 
of non-local commercial in areas apart from residential neighborhoods and the careful 
design and integration of local commercial land into neighborhoods, especially by 
the utilization of buffers. 

The second problem mentioned is summarized by the following quotation which 
was taken from a now unknown source: 

"Viewed substantively, it is a rare ordinance indeed that does not commit 
greatly excessive land areas to commercial or industrial use, thereby en- 
suring that the land so classified will not be used for much of anything or 

-49- 



thaf in the spotty development that does result, large sections of the com- 
munity will be permanently blighted, it is a rare ordinance that does not 
strip zone for commercial use the land along major thoroughfares, even 
though every objective study since World War li has demonstrated clearly 
that strip type commercial developments are now generally functionally 
obsolete and are likely to result in business failures, community blight, 
increased traffic hazards, and other problems" . 

While the above quotation pertains to zoning, it is equally true of many land use 
plans which of necessity must take into consideration existing development patterns. 
One root cause for this surplus of commercial land in both plan and zoning ordinance 
is the tremendous profits to be made in land speculation in developing areas. The 
Douglas Commission reported on the impact of this speculation with regards to housing. 
In a report prepared for the commission by Mrs. Grace Milgram, Assistant Director 
for Research of the Columbia University Institute of Urban Environment it was stated: 



"In the course of transformation of land from rural to urban use, enormous 
values are created which encourage speculative activities that reinforce the 
tendency towards higher prices".* 

The author of this report found developing land to be increasing in price from 10% 
to 15% annually. Another Douglas Commission Report (Research Report No. 16, U. S. 
Government Printing Office ) reported that the single most powerful upward 

thrust on housing costs was rocketing land prices, which rose 259% from 1948 to 1966. 
The significance of these findings is relevant to a discussion of commercial land use, 
in that commercial land generally demands a much higher value than does residential 
property and therefore encourages speculation to an extent even greater than that which 
occurs in residential properties. The result, of course, can be problems outlined above. 
On the other hand, a shortage of land for commercial uses would doubtless also result in 
inflated prices for such land, and perhaps a lag in the provision of adequate commercial 
goods and services. 

Another problem which arises from the development of commercial land is a result 
of the design of commercial development. Oversimplified, these may be characterized 
as the development of strip commercial versus the development of shopping centers. 
The characteristics of shopping centers versus strip commercial were outlined in detail 
In the Commercial Study. Very briefly, it may be said that strip commercial is a 
more inefficient use of land, is much more costly to service, greatly reduces the 
capacity of streets and thus increases congestion and hazards because of the numerous 
curb cuts and the intersections with streets. In many instances strip commercial can 
become a blighting influence, limiting comparison shopping and perhaps most 
importantly from a land use standpoint, has a far greater linear exposure which may be 
adjacent to residential areas or other low intensity land uses, and therefore, multiplies 
the potential for land use incompatibility. 



* U.S. Land Prices — Directions and Dynamics , Page 7, Commission Research Report 
No. 13, p. 77 US Government Printing Office. 



-50- 



There are certain uses which are dependent on exposure to passerby traffic, 
such as a tourist facility on a major highway. Other uses have traditionally located 
on individual sites, although there are few such uses which have not been placed 
in shopping centers at least on occasion. Even automotive service centers have been 
incorporated in some shopping center designs and In at least one instance a shopping 
center of several automobile dealerships has been developed. Another factor counting 
for the preponderance of commercial along major highways is the lack of appeal of such 
locations for residential uses. It is estimated that there are approximately 157 miles 
of principal and minor arterials in the proposed classification system of streets, which 
does not include collector streets and purely local streets. If 200 feet of depth were 
preserved for commercial on either side of all these thoroughfares, more than 7,500 
acres would thus be available for commercial use. Contrast this with approximately 
580 acres now developed. 

In summary, commercial is one of the most difficult land uses to make provisions 
for in a community. In general, as a land use, the costs are greater to provide 
municipal services such as larger streets, more police protection, more fire protection, 
more frequent garbage collection, etc. than other land uses. On the other hand it 
is generally believed that It returns a surplus in taxes above the cost of such services, 
because of its higher value. In addition, it is one of the larger employers in a typical 
community. It was estimated that slightly less than 6,000 people were employed in 
retail trade in 1967, which was approximately 16% of all resident employees in 
Alachua County. While commercial enterprises are in a sense a part of daily living, 
the location of commercial uses frequently becomes an issue with the adjoining proper- 
ties because of the high intensity characteristics of the use. The solution to the 
problem of locating such use in the community lies with intelligent design and loca- 
tion. Only with the proper orientation and site selection can commercial land use 
become an entirely welcome neighbor to its surroundings and thus convenient to the 
people that It is to serve. 

Existing Commercial Land Use 

The Gainesville Community owes Its early existence to the fact that it served 
as a market place for a broad region in North Central Florida. Consequently It 
has developed commercial land use somewhat out of proportion to its size. Overall, 
it was estimated (in the market analysis prepared as a part of the Commercial Study) 
that in 1967 Gainesville was capturing approximately 128% of the dollars which 
should have been available for retail goods and services from the local residents, 
indicating that a good share of the support for such goods and services was coming 
from non-residents. 

Approximately 520 acres are devoted to commercial uses in the urban area, with 
approximately 60 additional acres of offices, or a total of 580 acres. This amounts 
to approximately 0.7 acres per lOO persons in the urban area. Approximately 2 1/2% 
of the developed land area in the Gainesville Urban Area Is devoted to commercial 
and office uses. This percentage would seem to be in line with the amounts devoted 
to commercial In other cities, however, the figure is deflated by the fact that the 
Gainesville Urban Area contains an Inordinately large amount of developed public 
uses, such as the University. Because the public shore in a larger per- 
centage of the total the other user are proportiorKately smaller 



to commercial and other uses. For example, approximately 32.3 percent of the 
developed area is devoted to public and semi-public uses, excluding rights-of-ways. 
This compares with approximately 22% for fifteen American Cities as reported in 
Land Use In American Cities.* If the public and semi-public percentage of 
the developed area were reduced to a similar amount, i.e. 22%, the commercial 
and office percent would be increased to over 3% of the total developed area also, 
as was the case with the sample cities. 

Commercial land use is generally discussed with regards to three different 
types: the central business district, strip commercial and shopping centers. There 
is no standard definition for a central business district although they are generally 
defined by the type of uses which are found therein. Thus the distinction between 
what is downtown or central business district versus what is strip commercial is some- 
times unclear. If one assumes that the area lying within the proposed loop is Central 
Business District and the remaining commercial radiating out therefrom is strip, then 
approximately 5% of the total developed commercial in the area is located in the 
CBD, 18% In planned shopping centers, and approximately 77°/o of the total com- 
mercial is located in strips along major thoroughfares. While the central business 
district and the shopping centers comprise only 26% of the total commercial land 
in the urban area, they account for 39% of the commercial floor space. This Is 
due to the aforementioned inefficient use of land which is characteristic of strip 
development. 

Central Business District 



It was concluded through this study that the central business district suffers from 
the some problems which hove plagued most older downtowns through the country. 
These include insufficient parking, problems with automobile and pedestrian circu- 
lation, and most importantly, the central business district Is suffering from competition 
from shopping centers which provide these latter two amenities. In addition, the 
function of downtown has, and is^ gradually changing from a major retail center to more 
of a government and office center. This is true in many cities Including Gainesville. 

A detailed study of the ills and solutions to these problems was not attempted 
in this study. Such a study was completed In 1963 which Included many recommendations 
to aid in the revitalizatlon of the central business district. Paramount among these 
was the development of the so-called parking loop around the central business district 
to Improve circulation and act as a feeder Into parking lots to be developed around 
same. This loop concept Is still in the forefront of planned development for this area. 
In addition, a preliminary central business district improvement plan was presented in 
the Commercial Study for discussion and evaluation. This improvement plan can only 
be evaluated fully in terms of a complete circulation system which would be the product 
of a transportation study. 



* Land Uses In American Cities, by Harland Bartholomew, Harvard University Press, 
Cambridge, 1965. 

-52- 



Sfrip Commercial 

Most of the major thoroughfares in the older parts of Gainesville have been 
developed to some extent with strip commercial. These include West 13th Street, 
North Main Street, and parts of West 6th Street, Waldo Road, and Hawthorne 
Road. In addition portions of NW 39th, NW 23rd and NW 16th 'Avenues have 
been subjected to strip commercial developments although to a lesser degree. 
However, substantial stretches of West University, 8th Avenue, 16th Avenue 
and 39th Avenue, especially west of 13th Street have been kept free of this 
type of development, both inside and outside the City limits. 

Shopping Centers 

Shopping centers are usually defined as a group of stores planned and 
developed and generally owned and managed as a unit. They are distinguished 
from shopping districts basically by the fact that they are planned as a unit. 

Shopping centers are generally classified as to one of three types: Neighborhood 
Centers, Community Centers, and Regional Centers. Each type of center may vary 
greatly in size and are, therefore, generally classified by the characteristics of the 
major tenant located therein. 

The principal tenant of a neighborhood center is generally a supermarket. 
Neighborhood centers are designed for and accommodate primarily the local 
convenience needs such as foods, common drugs, and sundries of a neighborhood. 
They generally need 5,000 or more people for support. The trade area is thought 
to be within approximately 6 minutes driving time and the center should ideally 
be located within approximately 1 1/2 miles of the people that it is to serve, al- 
though there are no hard and fast rules pertaining thereto. 

The community center is generally based on a junior department store or a 
variety store as the major tenant. |n addition, it genera lly has a supermarket, 
drugstore, and other local convenience goods and provides a limited amount of 
comparison shopping as well. It is, therefore, somewhat of an "in-between" or 
intermediate step between the local convenience neighborhood shopping center 
and the comparison shopping afforded by a major or regional center. Again, while 
there are no hard and fast rules, some experts believe that a service radius of 
approximately three to five miles is the limit of the service area of a community 
type center. 

The major tenant of a regional center or major center as classified in these 
studies is the full line department store or stores. These may have from 300,000 
to more than a million square feet of gross leasable area and draw from a wide 
trade area, depending upon the competition and pull of other similar centers. 

-53- 



Only eight centers were considered to have been planned shopping centers in 
the Gainesville Urban Area. Although classification of existing centers is never 
very clear cut, perhaps the best example of a neighborhood center is the Northgate 
Shopping Center at NE 16th Avenue. Others are located at North Main Street 
and 10th Avenue and at West 34th Street and University Avenue. However, the 
latter center, in combination with the center on the east side of 34th Street, creates 
trade and service pull more like that of a community center. Other community 
centers are located at West University and NW 6th Street (Central Plaza), the 
Gainesville Center on North Main Street, and Fields Plaza. The Mall was con- 
sidered as the only major or regional shopping center. 

In addition to these centers there are approximately 30 planned local con- 
venience centers scattered throughout the urban area. These centers have many 
of the characteristics of planned shopping centers although they are very much 
smaller in scale, usually constructed around a local convenience food outlet with 
one or two additional stores. Frequently these additional stores are laundromats, 
small hardware, etc. Because of their small size and the fact that they may be 
located adjacent to or near other strip commercial many of these centers take on 
the characteristics of strip commercial. 

Commercial Zoning 

The quotation included earlier pointed out the common practice of overzoning 
for commercial uses. Such has been the case in Gainesville. It is estimated that 
there areapproximotely 1,966 acres zoned in various commercial categories in the 
urban area, not including 146 acres of residential-professional zoning. In addition, 
tterearealmost 3,000 acres zoned MS in the City and County and MP in the County 
which permits commercial uses. At the time the land use report was completed, 
when there was some 80 acres less commercial zoning than now, less than 12% of all 
the land which permitted commercial development was actually developed for that 
purpose. Only 27% of all the land that permitted commercial development was 
developed for any use, including industrial, residential and other non-commercial 
uses which were located in these zoned areas. Of the land which was zoned in 
commercial categories exclusively, less than 25% was being utilized for commercial 
uses. Approximately 63% of the commercially zoned land was vacant while 12% 
was being used for non-commercial purposes. Of the non-commercial zoning districts 
which permit commercial uses approximately 80% is still vacant. Based on the 
estimated current population of 83,000 there is approximately 0.6 of an acre of 
land which is zoned to permit commercial uses for every person in the urban area. 
This compares with the approximately O.OCTof an acre per person actually developed 
for this use. 

In sum, the Gainesville Urban Area is not unlike that of most older cities in the 
country in that it has a tremendous surplus of commercially zoned bnd which has 
little if any chance of development for that purpose. In addition, there are many 
problems created thereby as was outlined earlier in this section. 

-54- 



Future Commercial Land Use 

The commercial land use portion of the Land Use Plan was developed in accordance 
with three important concepts. 

1 . In the older areas where the pattern is well established by existing 
commercial land use, fairly detailed recommendations were made in 
an attempt to upgrade the functioning of said areas and to better 
integrate them into their surroundings by buffering, "rounding off" 
etc . . . Where the pattern was not irreversibly established by 
existing development, cutbacks in commercial land use were some- 
times recommended. 

2. In the outlying undeveloped areas of the community, specific site 
designations were not made unless there was an extremely logical 
site already properly zoned. This was to avoid the frequent result 
of having such areas withheld from development for speculative 
reasons. 

3. In all future development of commercial not designated on the 
Land Use Plan, it is an important consideration of this plan that 
such development be in accord with the principles and policies 
as set forth herein. In addition, with particular reference to 
shopping center development, the need for same should definately 
be established by a reliable market analysis before it is added to the 
Land Use Plan. 

After careful consideration of the location and amount of commercial included on 
the plan, it was concluded that the Urban Area could well be served both as to amount 
and with convenience as shown.* This conclusion includes the non-local needs of the 
larger market area which the local merchants serve. The plan includes approximately 
1,675 acres of offices and commercial in total. This would amount toO. 00^ acres per 
person projected for 1990 versusO.OCFin use today. Thus there is not only an increase 
allowed per person ever what is now used, but this figure is also inflated by the fact 
that with modern shopping centers the land area per person is dropping because of more 
efficient land utilization. 

It Is not intended, however, to preclude additional commercial development where 
such development is soundly conceived, is based on a demonstrable demand, and can 
be properly integrated into the development pattern of the location where it is sought. 
This may be particularly true for neighborhood level shopping centers during the later 
stages of the Planning period. I.e., the 1975-1980. Such areas might include the 
area West of 1-75, Archer Road, in the Devil's Mlllhopper area, the Klncald Road area 
and perhaps in the far Northeast. 



* Note: the service pattern of local neighborhood commercial Is Illustrated by Map V, 

which shows a one mile and 1 1/2 mile radius around the existing and probable shopping centers. 

-55- 





8 












a: 

UJ 

h 
z 
u 

U — D g 
IQ ^. 
(/) U 3 

UJ J I 

^ ^ hi 

m 

I 


UJ 

Z 



(0 (0 

D D 

Q Q 

< < 

(r a. 

u u 

J -J 

--JOJ 

1 



I 



In many areas where commercial was adjacent to single family residential uses, 
a buffer use of offices or multiple family residential uses was provided in between. 
One exception to this is the commercial at the freeway interchanges where only a 
small generalized greenbelt buffer is shown. However,, the current zoning on these 
sites already permits multiples and offices, so that the same buffering effect can be 
achieved undercurrent conditions, and should be encouraged to happen in any event. 

RESIDENTIAL 

Summary of Existing Ch aracteristics 

To the overage person, interest in a land use plan centers around their home or In 
theresidentJal aspects of the plan. !t is in these areas that the average person spends 
most of his time and has his biggest Investment. In terms of the City as a whole this 
land use category constitutes the biggest user of oil developed property. The latter 
statement is supported by a survey of 15 American cities which was done by Harland 
Bartholomew, who reported that in a typical city 43% of the total developed land was 
used for residential purposes. Only street right-of-woys with 26% are close to this 
large a share of the total developed area. 

In Gainesville the percentage is much lower due primarily to the fact that a 
substantially larger percentage of the total developed area is devoted to public 
and semi-public uses. This in turn lowers the percentage of all other categories 
relative to the whole. The actual residential percentage in Gainesville is approxi- 
mately 28 1/2%. If the public land holding were reduced in a hypothetical case 
from the approximate 37 1/2% to a more norma! 22% (as was found in the sample 
cities) the total residential would constitute approximately 35% *'o 36% of the whole. 

In terms of zoning approximately 8, 700 acres out of 13,800 zoned, or about 
64%, are zoned for residential use. This does not include the residential estates 
(RE) and agriculture districts, which are considered holding zones, even though 
they do permit single family residential uses on large lots. In addition, some of the 
residentialcategories, notably the residential professional (RP), allow non-residential 
uses. Most of the residential zones also permit public and semi-public uses such as 
schools and churches. 

The proposed plan contains approximately 35,000 acres in the various residential 
categories out of a total of approximately 54,000 acres in the recommended develop- 
ment area or about 65% of the total . This percentage, however, does not exclude 
rights-of-way except for some of the major existing thoroughfares. Since rights-of-way 
nonnally constitute 20% to 30% of the developed area of residential properties, the 
percentage of the plan which would be residential is considerably less than what is ap- 
parent from these figures. If 20% were excluded the approximate percentage would 
be dropped to about 50%, as an example. 



-57- 



Dwelling Units 



It Is estimated that there are In excess of 25,200 dwelling units In the Urban 
Area. A breakdown of these units Is as follows: 

TABLE IV 

EXISTING DWELLING UNITS 
1970 



Within City 
Outside City 
Total 



Single Famil 


y(SF) 


M 


jitiples 


(MF) 


Mobile Home (MH) 


12,374 






6,803 




336 


3,737 






487 




1,066 


16,111 






7,350 




1,402 (Parks Only) 
(Estimated 
350 Scattered) 
1,752 


63.9% 






29.2% 




6.95% 



I 

( 

Percentage 

The present trend In development of residential housing units, both nationally I 

and locally has been away from the traditional detached single family dwelling. 
This Is Illustrated for the Urban Area by Table V. As the estimates in this table in- 
dicate, single family has dropped from a high of 80% of the total number of dwelling I 
units in 1960 to the estimated 64% today, whereas both multiple family (apartments) ' 
and mobile homes have Increased their percentage share of the total. 

There are numerous factors behind this dramatic change In the dwelling unit 
composition of the Urban Area. The most significant factor, of course. Is cost. 

For various reasons, the traditional single family house Is now beyond the reach of I 

many. The significance of this fact is that alternative types of housing, such as apart- 
ments, mobile homes and new types of dwellings such as modular construction dwellings 
are becoming a significant factor In land development and must be considered in I 

the development of the overall Land Use Plan. 



-58- 



r 

I 



TABLE V 
DWELLING UNIT COMPOSITION ~ GAINESVILLE UR BAN AREA 





Total D.V.'s 


Single Family 


Apartment 


Mobile Homes 


January, 1960 


15,056 
(100%) 


12,020 
(80%) 


2,336 
(15.5%) 


690 
(4.5%) 


1965 


18,542 


14,309 
(77.2%) 


3,307 
(17.8%) 


926 
(5.0%) 


September, 1968 


22,890 


15,304 
(66.9%) 


6,137 
(26.8%) 


1,449 
(6.3%) 


April, 1970 


25,111 


16,111 
(63.9%) 


7,350 
(29.2%) 


1,752 
(6.9%) 



Source: Department of Community Development estimates. 



Housing Conditions 

The Gainesville Neighborhood Analysis study, completed in 1965, indicated that 
within the city limits there were 105 dilapidated dwellings (0.7% of the total), 2,353 
dwellings in need of rehabilitation (15. 1%), and 13,003 standard or conservation dwellings 
(84.2%). A Housing Survey was conducted by the Department of Community Development 
in July, 1969 in those areas where substantial numbers of substandard dwellings units are 
located. The survey enumerated approximately 1, 650 substandard dwelling units within 
the City. Approximately 1,500 of these were dwellings in need of rehabilitation to bring 
them up to the standards in fhe Housing Code, and approximately 150 were considered 

-59 



dilapidated beyond repair. Because of the enforcement of the Housing Code, it is 
now believed that this figure has been reduced to approximately 1,300 substandard 
dwellings of which approx imately 100 are dilapidated. 

These figures are indicative of the fact that continued efforts must be made to 
insure that all residents of the community are afforded the opportunity to live in a 
dwelling unit which meets at least the very minimum standards as set forth in the 
Housing Code. To do so will require the continued co-operation of both the govern- 
mental and the private sectors of our community. 

Much effort has been and is continuing to be spent, by both the public and the 
private sector to provide low and moderate income housing in the Gainesville Area. 
A list of many of the projects completed or now underway is contained in Table VI. 
Continued enforcement of the Housing Code in an effort to bring substandard units 
up to a level of minimum health and safety standards, coupled with the ever rising 
cost of housing, will undoubtedly result in continued efforts in the direction of providing 
such housing as is included in this list. 

Plan Recommendations 



As noted earlier, roughly 35,000 acres out of the approximate 54,000 total 
which are recommended in the development portion of the plan, was devoted to resi- 
dential uses. These could be broken down as approximately 28,300 acres or 81% 
single family, 3,800 or 1 1% multiple family and 2,800, or the remaining 8% in 
mobile home areas. This breakdown is somewhat deceptive in that approximately 
1,800 acres were designated on the plan as areas in which either of the three above 
mentioned categories of residential would be suitable, so long as the density were 
maintained at approximately 8 units/acre. Other areas were designated suitable for 
either multiples or single family units. These areas would also permit any of the newer 
types of dwelling units such as the proposed modular housing types which are now 
coming into vogue. 

Of the different residential categories, single family detached housing has been 
allocated by far the largest amount of land in the plan. This does not mean that 
a heavier emphasis has been placed on returning to this particular type of dwelling 
unit, but is recognition of the fact that it is, and will probably continue to be the 
largest land user because of its density. It should also be noted that in all aspects 
of the plan, 100% development would be impossible by 1980. This is true of the 
industrial, commercial as well as the residential portions of the plan. Only 120,000 
or approximately 38,000 to 39,000 additional people are expected to be added to 
the population in the next 10 years. 

A survey was made of all lots platted in 1960, and was found that the average 
lot size was approximately 16,500 square feet, even though the largest required 
lot size is only 10,000 square feet. It was also found that the average size of lots 
has been steadily increasing during this period, in keeping with the increasing price 
of the dwelling units. A projection of this lot size to 1980 resulted in an average 
in excess of 25, 100 square feet by that date. 



-60- 



< 

Z 
< 

D 



> 

to 



< 



I 



a; 

Q. 
X 

I— 

C3> 

C 



0) 



Q. 
< 



C 

Q 

E 

-o 



u 

c 
a 

O 

(J 



o 



CO 



CL Q. 

< < 



C 

Ci 

E 



c 

0) 

Q 

E 



"TO 


-o 


-o 


OJ 


<^ 


_a> 


Q. 


*Q. 


'q. 


D 


D 


3 


O 


O 


U 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 



< 



c 
E 

D 

(1) 



"D 

'5. 

3 
O 

o 
o 

O) 

c 



Q. 
< 



c 

0) 






TJ 




0) 




3 






L. 


'■" 


t/> 


■4- 


c 


• — 


o 


b 


u 



O) c 

C 3 

TD (!) 

CO *- 



Q. 
< 

C 
(^ 

E 

3 

0) 

% 



(U 

3 



I 8 

C 3 

«5 2 



M c 
0) IT 
X — 

0) 0) 

■^^ 

3 Q 
Q -D 

o 
o 

■*- 
<0 

TJ 

C 

o 



c 

0) 

Q 
o 



QJ 

3 
O 
O 

o 



TO 

I/) C 
«) ~ 
X — 

<U 0) 

3 Q 

^^ 

o 
o 



c 
o 






c 

TJ 

c 
o 

(U t3 

-Si '5. 

Q. 3 
E o 

U O 



o 

c 

.?i x 

u- a> 

**- tj 

fl) — 

C3) . - 

._ c; 

31 3 



0) 



C 

o 



(U 


-o 


0) 


0) 


n 


a. 


E 




o 


o 



<J o 



</> c 

0) ^ 

X — 

4) d) 

3 Q 
O 

o 

(U 

Q 

"O 

c 
o 



c 
o 



c 

Q) 
_Q 

"D 

C 
D 

U o 



Q 

z 

a: 

o 



_i 

LU Q_ 

<o 

o 

z 

o 

X 



:5 
O 
u 

z 



o 

z 
< 

o 



c 
ID 



o 

Z 



<u 

C 

■D 
0) 
Q- 

_o 

0) 
> 

(D 



CM 



c 

<u 

E 

_a) 

Q. 
Q. 

3 

to 

c 

0) 

a: 



(U 
3 
C 
(U 
> 

< 



CX) 



o 
_o 

_Q 

o 

o 
to 



o 
o 



nO 
CO 



rO"T3 CO 









CM 2J 



3 
C 
(U 
> 
< 



CO 



o 
o 



o 
o 



CN V, 

CM <a 

< 0) 

X c 



_> 

CD 

CO 

CN 



z 



o 
o 



o 
o 



^ r— CN 



o 
o 



CO "U 



CM 2i 

< ii 

X c 



CO 



ir> 



lO 

o 
o 

o 
o 



o 



13 



3 



CM 2J 
< ^ 

X _E 



<o 

I. 

i5i 

_c 
•»- 

CN 

z 

o 

o 
_o 

_Q 

O 
O 
IT) 



O 



(/> 

3 

o *- 
CM * 

< ^ 

X ^ 



0) 
3 
C 
0) 
> 

< 






(J 
o 



o 
o 

00 







c 


c 








0) 






c 




0) 


<U 


E 
o 

X 


o 

o 


C 


0) 


3 


3 
O 


E 
o 

Z 


c 
c 


o 

(U 

■s 


CL 
CO 

c 


o 

(U 


o 

X 

0) 
in 

c 


X 

c 
o 






D 

o 


o 




3 
CO 


o 

X 



o 
o 



c 

3 

o 

X 



.- >» 

> *- 



o 

CO 



c 



3 

o 

X 



O 
O 



O) 

c 

I/I 

3 

o 

X 






o 



c 

3 

o 

X 






CO 
CO 

o 



line 


0) 

c 


o 


c 


1 

■*- 


C 


^ 

-^ 






S 3 


o 


3 


o 


3 





3 






O < 


o 


< 


o 


< 


O < 






. 










■t- 








<a 


• 








oo 








> 


ID 
















< 


> 

< 




i 












> 


> 




< 




LLI 








'c 


*c 




_c 




CO 






. 


3 


D 




00 




a 






R 


• 


• 




LU 




<-i- 






o^ 


UJ 


LU 




z 




t-t- 






'~~ 


<- QJ 


L«- 


(U 




o 






^ 


O -D 


o 


;o 


o 




3 






X 


-^ in 


^ 


io 




u 






o 


bloc 

uth : 


_o 


t 
o 


o 




c 
o 

1/) 






c" 


o 6^ 


o 


z 


_D 




• •-• 






,o 


o 


o 




o 




— 






'\n 


o c 


o 


c 


o 




^ 






•— 


CN O 


CM 


o 










> 


















5 










^^ 








D) 










o> 








C 


0) 








c 
'Co 


D 






*c 

c 


o 

E 

1— 


o 

D 
(U 




c2 


3 
1 

4) 


O- 

"D 

C 
D 

TJ 




i/> 

'c 

3 


p 


0) 


^ 




o 


25 


O 

o 




"P 


3 


o 


}£. 




o 


0) 


1 




o 

1— 


s. 



-6_L-_ 



At the same time a projection was made based on the actual number of single 
family dwelling units constructed over the same period. This dote was also projected 
to 1980, the results of which was a continued gradual decline in the number of single 
family units constructed per year, to approximately 375 by that date. The total 
demand in this hypothetical case was approximately 4, 165 more single family dwellings 
in the urban area. If all the additional dwelling units were constructed on 25, 100 
square foot lots, and approximately 25% is added for street rights-of-way, the total 
additional demand for land would be only approximately 3,000 acres. 

It is impossible to determine what will be the actual percentage division between 
the different residential types for the future. It was attempted in the plan to logically 
relate land uses in a harmonious manner, and to provide adequate opportunities for 
the development of all types consistent with the objectives expressed in the Policies 
Plan outlined in this report. 



CHART VI 

COMPOSITION 

OF 

NEW DNA/ELLING UNITS 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 



lOO 
90' 
SO 

70 • 

h 

7 60' 

U 

50 

UJ 

so- 
lo • 






MOBILE HOMES ii(^l 




o 



// , 

^/ ////// , . , . ^ 

/////////// /////y ' . 
////////////////////' . 

■'/////////////////////'^ ■ 

//////////////////////////////// ^ /' ^ ^ '' ''//,'y 
////////////// / ///////////////■^yy^/ ///////. 



^V//////////// A SINGLE FAMILY 

y/////////////7777777777777777/7/ 



■{/////////' . - 
///////////■ 



///////// 

y ////// // 
//////// 



' ^ ^ ^ '^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ '^'^ ^ ^ -^ ^ ^ -^ ■^ '^ ^ ^ ^ '^ '' ^ ^ ^//////////,///y ////// //T^^/ ///////////// y"^ ^ 

'////// y ////////// /^///^/^^^/^VV///////////////////////////// /////// ^y/ 

- - ' ' ^ ' ' ^ ^ ■> / 'I y ■! ■! ^ ^ J ^ / y yy/////////y/////////''///''yy ^^ ^ ^ / ^/ . 



7 

62 



r 

6T 



60 



61 



63 



6-4 



YEARS 



65 



66 



68 



Source: Department of Community Development estimates. 

-62- 



The division between the housing types in the past is shown in Table V and in 
Illustration VI, which shows the approximate composition of the new units constructed 
in the period from 1960 to 1968. All evidence indicates that the Gainesville Urban 
Area has lagged behind the State and the Nation in the percentage of the total housing 
market which Is made up of mobile homes. Nationally the percentage market devoted 
to mobile homes has averaged around 15% although It has surged higher In the last 2 or 3 
years. Locally, In only one year is it estimated that this figure has been approached, and 
oswas Indicated earlier only about 7% of the total housing stock is found in mobile 
homes. Based on the 120,000 population projected for 1980 and assuming that 15% of 
all living units will be mobile homes, it Is estimated that approximately 1,750 additional 
units would be required by 1980. At 7 units/acre (the current ordinance permits 9), this 
would require an additional 250 acres of property In the mobile home category, if all 
2,800 acres on the plan were developed at 7 units/acre, a total of 19,699 units could be 
accommodated. 

Based on the same anticipated population of 120,000 by 1980, and subtracting 
from the total anticipated need those persons expected to be housed on the campus of 
the University, and subtracting the single family and mobile home demand from the total, 
a hypothetical figure of 5,800 units was developed as the anticipated need for multiple 
family units by 1980. Densities In multiple family vary greatly from a planned low in 
the plan of approximately 8 units/acre up to approximately 20 units/acre, about the 
top for Garden type units. Assuming an overall average of approximately 15 to the 
acre, something In excess of 400 acres would be required to develop all of the anti- 
cipated multiple family or apartment units needed between now and 1980. This com- 
pares with the proposed 3,800 acres In the plan. 

Thus^as was true with the other categories, an extremely ample supply has been 
set aside in the plan for each specific land use category. Assuming all of the lower 
densities as anticipated In the plan, a total of roughly 350,000 people could ^'•'- ac- 
commodated by same compa red to the 120,000 plus anticipated by 1980. Assuming 
total development of all of the land, the dwelling unit breakdown would be approxi- 
mately 33% multiple family, 49% single family and 18% in mobile homes. 



INDUSTRIAL 



A preliminary Industrial land use plan was developed as a part of the Industrial 
Study . Only minor changes were made In the final overall recommended plan. One 
change was the expansion of the Industrial site north of, and adjacent to, the Hawthorne 
Road location of Florida Fryers Company. Subsequent re-examination of this area 
revealed Its extensive use as a borrow pit which rendered it virtually useless for other 
uses. It was therefore included as industrial on the final version of the plan. Also, a 
small amount of Industry was removed along SW 16th Avenue on the final plan. 



-63- 



The following is o summary of pertinent findings and recommendations taken from 
the Industrial Study with these minor changes made. Note the total industrial land 
use reported hereinafter differs slightly from the overall summary of land use 

totals as contained in Table XII . This is due to the fact that the latter is generalized 
with only major rights-of-way excluded, whereas the former figures have all existing 
right-of-way excluded. 



1. There is approximately 3,023 acres of land zoned for industrial in the 
Urban Area. Of this total about 2,081 is zoned Manufacturing Industrial 
(MP), and approximately 942 acres is zoned Local Service industrial (MS). 

2. Of the total land zoned approximately 2,405 acres currently is vacant. 
This is approximately 79 1/2% of the total. 

3. Approximately 89 acres of industrial or wholesale/warehouse type land 
use was found in areas zoned some classification other than industrial. 

4. There is an estimated total of 481 acres of industrial land use in the 
Urban Area with approximately 354 acres located in the industrial districts, 

5. The industry in this area is characterized by a low intensity of land 
coverage, a low employee per acre ratio, and has an average lot size 
of approximately 2 acres per use. The actual uses themselves cover 

a broad range of types from very light Industry to some very heavy 
industries. They also Include many uses which are permitted In non- 
industrial districts such as light wholesaling operations. 

6. it is recommended in the plan that recognition be given to the differing 
characteristics and locational needs of light versus heavy industry and 
to purely wholesale and/or warehousing types of uses. 

7. A total of 2,918 acres (including 21 additional acres added from the 
preliminary plan) are recommended for Industrial in the land use plan. 

8. Approximately 2,261 acres of vacant Industrial land Is Included in the 
plan recommendation, although a small portion of this would be classified 
as unbuildable without extensive site preparation, and some of the area 
would include land which would need some site preparation or may have 
soil characteristics which dictate a low Intensity utilization. 

There are some 2,400 acres of vacant property now zoned for Industry. It was 
•estimated that In 1967 that the average number of employees per acre was about 12. 
If the remaining vacant acreage now zoned were developed at this density It would 
support 28,800 workers. Projections of the number of resident employees In various 



-64- 



industrial categories were contained In the Economic Base Study- The total for 
1980 In Manufacturing, Wholesale Trade and Construction, many of whose workers 
would ordinarily be found In industrial districts, was 10,091. (Note: this total 
was for resident employment, which is a measurement of the employment of the 
residents of a given area, as opposed to other labor force counts which may include 
commuters and/or workers who hold more than one job, and consequently are 
counted more than once). At the rate of only 12 employees per acre, the prevailing 
overall ratio found in the survey In this study, a total of 840 acres would be required. 
This would not be in addition to the acreage In use now since these same three cate- 
gories already had 7,265 employees in 1967. Thus the net projected gain is 2,826 
employees, which would need about 218.8 acres based on this rate. A much higher 
ratio is expected as urbanization continues. Thus it is safe to conclude that sufficient 
land is provided in the plan to accommodate all workerswho can reasonably be ex- 
pected in Industry in the near future. 

Three major goals for Industrial development were presented In the earlier report 
on goals. These are: 

1 . Enough industry to meet industrial employment needs. As the above dis- 
cussion clearly points out, there Is unquestionably enough land now zoned 
to meet any forseeabie need for industrial development in the future. 

2. Adequate supply of suitable Industrial land. Again, it has been established 
that an adequate supply is now available; it's suitability was also discussed in 
the Industrial Study. While clearly not all land now zoned is suitable for use, 
only a reasonably small fraction of the total land Is completely unusable. Un- 
questionably an adequate supply is available. 

3. Minimization of Industrial Blight and the Blighting Effects of Industries on 
Their Neighbors. Emphasis In this plan has been placed on this goal . This 

Is accomplished by recommending cutbacks where appropriate and/or "rounding 
off" of industrial land where such action would tend to encourage a better 
land use relationship between differing uses; and by hereby strongly recom- 
mending the pursuit and implementation of those desirable standards discussed 
in the Industrial Study report under the section on Industrial Promotion and/or 
the Selection of New Industry, and In the Policies Plan section of this report. 

It is recognized that there are at least three basic types of industrial uses. These are 
warehousing/wholesale operations, manufacturing or processing Industry, and non-manufac- 
turing Industry such as heavy construction types of land uses. In addition, there are certain 
retail or commercial uses which by their nature might be better located in an industrial 
district than In a commercial zone. Such uses might include heavy automotive repair, 
lumber and building supply stores, and etc. 



-65- 



The Zoning Ordinance currently gives some tacit recognition to the existence of 
different levels of industrial use by the establishment of two industrial zones, one 
called local service industrial and one called manufacturing. This is somewhat par- 
allel to the practice in many communities of classifying industry as "light" and "heavy" 
In practice, however, both types of uses have indiscriminately located In either zone. 
Because of this fact, most of the districts outlined on the plan are simply labeled in- 
dustrial . However, In a few instances on the plan a purely wholesale/warehousing 
district Is recommended where It is felt that such locations would be inappropriate for 
most manufacturing operations. 

No large expansion In terms of land area has been recommended in this proposed 
plan because most of the available sites are reasonably located and the supply Is more 
than sufficient to meet the forseeable needs. However, one very Important need for 
change clearly stands out: industrial districts must be made more attractive if new 
industry to expand the economic base of the community is to be attracted to locate 
here. Industry is a legitimate land use in itself deserving of the same exclusive zoning 
which promotes harmony and compatibility as any other type of land use. It Is strongly 
urged therefore, that zoning changes be made to recognize this vital fact about modern 
industry. 

A second Important consideration Is that not all locations outlined on the plan 
are considered suitable for manufacturing uses. Therefore, certain districts are 
shown OS purely wholesale/warehousing operations. A certain amount of such uses 
are necessary in locations with close and good communication with the major com- 
mercial districts that these uses serve. Hcwever, wholesale/warehousing uses have 
not tra.. ionally presented the best appearance. It Is urged that particular care be 
taken in the implementation of these districts through zoning standards which will 

protect surrounding areas. 

Finally, It should be recognized that not all industrial uses would be appropriate 
In all districts. Generally speaking. It may be concluded that only the so called 
"light industrial" uses are desired by this Community. This would seem to be the con- 
sensus reached from the earlier goals discussions. Nevertheless there are several 
existing heavy industries In the Urban Area, such as Koppers the meat processing 
plants, and heavy construction firms, and there Is likely to be additional demands 
for such uses In the future. 

Because these uses could have a negative influence on certain light, research 
type industries, it is recommended that two categories of industry be established, in 
addition to wholesale/warehousing. It Is further recommended that industrial districts, 
A, B and E be restricted to the "lighter" category, with districts C and D divided into 
zones providing separation between the light and heavy types, and, of course, recog- 
nizing those heavy uses which now exist. This should be accomplished by the drafting 
of new zoning district boundaries. 



-66- 



RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE 



Introduction 



Recreation holds a position of high importance in American lifef today for as 
the amount of man's leisure time increases, his demand for recreation areas and 
facilities also increases. This need becomes even greater in urban areas where 
large concentrations of people are centered. Recreation and open space areas 
give urban man a place to which he can retreat, relax, and escape the rigors of 
urban tension. The fact that recreation and open space areas positively serve both 
physical and psychological human needs is a factor of prime importance. 

Another consideration that is often overlooked is the urban vAsrk that is per- 
formed by open space and recreational areas. Not only do they provide relief from 
urban development, but open space areas enhance and protect the urban area's re- 
source base. Such natural resources as clean air, uncontaminated water, and pro- 
ductive soils can be conserved through the proper use of open space and recreation 
areas. Open space wetlands and floodplains act as holding basins, thus preventing 
floods caused by the excess water runoff of development lands. Open space provides 
recreation for the outdoorsman and sportsman and is an essential tool for education 
in the natural and physical sciences. The ecological balance of nature is preserved 
by open space lands. 

Open space and recreation areas - their size, character, location, and shape - 
can have a profound effect on current and future development patterns. As such, 
open space and recreation planning becomes an integral factor in the comprehensive 
planning process. 

It becomes no easy task to relate the needs and desires of the people to the 
potential physical resource base available for open space and recreational develop- 
ment. Close coordination of all levels of government within the planning area is 
of prime importance to guarantee that paper plans become physical realities. 

That the residents in the Gainesville Area will have an increasing amount of 
leisure time requiring a variety of both public and private recreation facilities can 
be a guiding premise for recreation and open space planning. Certain principles can 
be followed to help insure both the quality and quantity of public recreational facilities. 
These were outlined in the preceeding policies plan section of this report. 

Neighborhood Parks 



The recreation standards developed by the Gainesville Recreation Advisory 
Board and reported in the Community Facilities and Recreation Sfudy (See Table Vli) 
recommended one to two acres per 1,000 population for neighborhood parks. It further 
recommended that such parks be in sites of 12 to 15 acres and be located within approxi- 
mately 3/4 of a mile of the populations it was to serve. The function of such park was 
to provide both passive and active recreation for neighborhoods. 



-67- 



< 

z 

oc 



> 

CO 



CO 

a 
< 

z 
< 

I— 

CO 



< 



0£. 

o 



CO 

< 



z 
o ^ 

LU ^ 

q: — 

LU ■< 
C^ U_ 

z 
o 






-o 


•^ 


0) 


'ui 


> 


c 


^ 


V 


0) 
CO 


"D 




c 


c 
o 


o 




c/> 


•*- 


-o 


o 


c 


3 


0) 


Q. 


a. 


o 


0) 


O- 


Q 



0) (U o 
I- CO Qi 

o. 



N 
CO 



3 

C to Q- 
0)0)0 

E < o 
OS 

O c O 
(U — ^ 
Q£ — 



<o o c 

< C CO 






E 



.CN 



E 

c 



9 



D 
Q. 
Q. 
D 

O) 

C 






0) </) 



CO W5 O 



0) 

3 

O o 

> o 

CO <■». 



j2 (u 



O 
O 

o 
o 

CL 

3 



E 

CN 



« 



D 


O 


f- 


O 




lO 


^ 


<■»- 




o 


i/> 




a> 


E 


u 
o 


3 

E 


CN 


c 


1 


0" 



-- E 



0) c 

E o 
•5 t 



d) 
x_c — 



c 

3 

e 



Is 

c o 

8 P 
•- 1 

Q) — 
*> _C 

£1 



m 



</) Q. 0) 

s-o i 

O N 0> 



> 5^ 

D O Q- 



c 

3 

e 

a> 

O 



o 

8 

£ 

Q. 

3 



J) 

e 



I 

CN 



O 
« I 

8 E 



CN C 

J- E 



;: « 



^ c 

<u a- c 

E <i> .y 

g e ° -ji 

viJ D o " 



c 
0) o 
> •- 

'</» D 
o >- 



c 

O 

Sx 



g ± 



2^ 



1 



0) 



« v*. 



5 8 2i 



> 

2 



T3 -D 
C C 



0) 

E 

Q. 
O^ 

> 

0) 



— 


0) 
D) 


< < 


-D 




8 




-E 




1 




JC 




O) 


^ 


0) 

Z 


O 



8 

o 

CN 



O 
O 
O 



to 
0) 



E 
cs 



E 

3 

E 



c 
t E 



</).= « 

— • L. 

o 

o ° 

CO ^ f^ 

1 -r 14- 
CN ^ O 



C w> (J 

'a. ^ 



U 



± t 

_C 3 

< 8 



0) 
0> 0) 

.E E c 

«« i_ E 

o o E 

_c \ o 

u "2 o 

3 «= w 

to O O 



-O 0) 

'> > 



> 

lA C 

O -IT 

^ s 



0) 



■•- •• 

•- C 

— o 

3 O 



8.x 

C3>.> 

.E t; 

t ° 

E .2 
_ o 

-Q 0) 



0) 

< < 



c 

3 

E 
f -^ 

O o 

U a. 



-68- 





o^ 




< 




z 




< 




CO 




Q^ 




D 




LU 




_l 




_J 








> 




CO 




LU 


^ 


i/>Z 


3 
C 

*- 

c 


DARD 
E GAI 


o 


Z X 


< •- 


— 


»- an 


> 


"^O 


LU 


Z "^ 


-J 
CO 

< 


S3II 
Oli 


1— 


<5 




II 1 ^ 




a: ^ 




Z 




Q 








»— 




< 




LU 




C^ 




u 



0) 
N 

CO 



-a 
> 

c 
o 



O 

a. 



-a 0) 
oj o i? 

u. > .- 



<u 2: o 

E < o 

O c o 

o -= o 



0) 

o 

c 






o> 



<o 



CO 



o 
o 



0) 

Q. 



+ 

o 
o 
o 

in 



E 
o 



o 

D 

CO 



o 
o 



- 0) 



D 

1 



:i5 

c 



- .E o) o 
c '■>- 

x.E 

y «- 12 

O) c 

C dJ "■ 

E 12 
E .9-0 

- 3 -a 
^ cr c 

</> 0) o 



^ E 



(1) 

■*- 
D 

z 



0) 

E 
o 

— (/) 

D -C 

c ^ 

'~ (/> 

A) O 

4) i> 

E o 



O ii 

■+- O 

D O 

•E ^ 

o c 

E u, 

72 — 

'> ~ 

p o 



o *^ 

E <D 

E X 

O IT 



J. I 

<■§ 

§^ 

<u — 

I- •— 



E 

D 
-*- 
O 

c 

0) 

'c 



> 

O 0) 

Q. *: 



5-2 = 



E 5 o 



O 4) 



0) 

— O) 

< < 



o 

Q- 



O 

c 
o 

a: 



o 
> 



0) 

o 

> 



o 

> 



o 

E e SJ o 

.§ § c « 

^^ S .^ 

o Q o E 

CO Q. S: c 



0) 



o > 

^•^ 

-O D 

c 
o o 



*> "^ 

1:1 



> 



0) 



_ « 

*o ~ 

0) u 

Q. O 
CO u. 

-69- 



C 
D 

e 

CO 

_o 

Q. 



2 



o 
o 

CM 
vt 



.:^ >s 



o 


u 


o 


o 




<-»- 


c 


_c 


o 


o 


— 


o 


o 


a> 


o 


3. 


£ 


vt 




C 


8 


t- 


£ 


Q. 








0) •" 




C t- 




^ .0) 




c ■- 




.2 8 




•*- 




a — 




3 JS 




0.-2 




8.J 




o {J 


"D 


o .E 


C 


o 




a 


9 


Q- o 


u> -fe 


• ^ 


0) 


> 


•- 0) 


"a 


y -c 


< 


o -•- 


c 


c -o 


o 


— 0) 




0) "O 




^v c_v 


o 


N > 


0) 


- e 


o 


-O Q. 


<D 


<» «x 


C^ 


-o e 


0) 


= o 

4> 


— 


c *^ 


'> 


E ir 


i/i 


o o 


0) 


o Q. 


c 


H -o 


*o 

o 


0) 


0) 


_8 


li 


ii-^ 


3 

o 


f S 



A like amount of 1 to 2 acres per 1,000 people was recommended for neighborhood 
playgrounds. Where both neighborhood playground and neighborhood parks were provided, 
a minimum of one acre of each, and at least two acres In total, was Included In the 
standards. 

By these standards a minimum of 120 acres to as much as 240 acres of neighbor- 
hood parks should be provided to meet the needs of the 120,000 people expected 
to be In the urban area by 1980. This standard would call for at least 8 sites, as- 
suming 15 acres per site. 

There are two Important considerations In providing for neighborhood park 
needs, however, above and beyond the question of an adequate amount to ser- 
vice a population of a given type. The first of these Is that In order to really 
accommodate the needs of the population such facilities must be provided within 
a reasonable distance from the homes they are to serve. No amount of neighbor- 
hood parks is sufficient If the land is so located as to negate Its use by the resident 
of a community. The second important consideration is that the ten year span covered 
by this plan is insufficient when considering land needs for recreation. Open land 
available at a reasonable price rapidly disappears In those locations where it Is most 
needed as growth takes place, and therefore realistically purchase must take place 
much in advance If any reasonable standard is to be met. 

The recommendations contained in the land use planwerealmed at achieving two 
objectives. One was the provision of adequate park needs In locations which would be 
convenient to most of the people In the community. (See Illustration VII). At the same 
time an attempt was made to economize on the total amount of land which would be 
needed by combining neighborhood parks with other facilities where possible. 

A total of approximately 189 acres is recommended In the plan. However, of 
this total only 49 acres represents separate new neighborhood park site recommendations. 
The remaining acreage is for park facilities In conjunction with either schools, com- 
munity parks, or regional parks, plus 45 acres In existing parks. It should be noted 
that the acreage Indicated Is not an exact amount, inasmuch as such figure Includes a 
simple designation of a 5 acre area to be used for neighborhood parks facilities in 
conjunction with each of several larger facll Itles of which It is to be a part. More 
or less amounts may be desired depending on the configuration and character of the 
larger area and of the population which would be served by the specific facility. 

Thirty-five of the acres contained In this recommendation represents the addition 
of five acres to each of seven elementary school sites, which would expand the park 
and playground facilities of said sites to meet the total need for neighborhood recreation 
In those areas. These sites include the following: an elementary school In the Glen 
Springs planning unit area, another In the Richland Heights or Northwood East 
planning unit, a site in either the Pine Grove, RuHedge, West Hills or West Park 



-70- 




i 

^'"l 


•a 




4 


+ 


+ 


y^ 





(0 

q: 

< 

Q. 

Q 



I 

o: 


(D 

I 


llJ 

z 

I 

z 
< 

J 

Q. 

z 



h 
< 
u 

QC 


q: 



? CO 

^ ? 

X ir 

y Q. 



< 

U 

< 





Z £ 



LU Q 

q: £ 
=) 3 

h. 

l\ 

J CD 
— U 

(0 § 

u 

z 

< 





(0 

D 

Q 
< 


-LJ 

fey 
0> 

oc 

JU 
(0 
Q 

UJUJ 
N J 

ZQ 
UZ 
< 



planning unlfs, a site In the Santa Fe planning unit, Glenwood planning unit, the 
Kanapaha planning unit, and finally, in the Arrendondo planning unit. These loca- 
tions are only suggestive, however, as it is not possible to anticipate specifically 
where each new school will be most needed, or when needed. 

An elementary school site by the recommended standards of the State Department 
of Education is 15 acres. Of this amount normally approximately 7 acres is devoted 
to playground activities. Therefore, In combination with 5 additional acres for park 
purposes a standard neighborhood facility of approximately 12 acres would result. 

Seven or eight additional community parks are anticipated ultimately to serve 
the urban area. Only four of these are recommended in this plan for development In 
the period between now and 1980. It is proposed that in three of these an additional 
five acres be added to the 25 or so acres normally making up such a park to provide 
facilities which would serve the immediate surrounding neighborhood park needs. These 
three sites are in the general area of MlUhopper planning unit, one of two sites west 
of the freeway in the Glenwood or Kanapaha planning units, and finally, a facility In 
the Rocky Point - Idyl wild area. It should be noted that with regards to community 
parks, and particularly with regards to regional parks, the location of the neighborhood 
facility must be in such manner as to permit ready access and use by the surrounding 
area population if It is to serve a neighborhood park function. 

The equivalent of at least seven, 5 acre sites were recommended in conjunction 
with the proposed regional park - open space areas In the plan. First of all it was 
noted that the picnic and passive recreation facilities of the existing Mornlngslde 
Park could serve a limited neighborhood park need in that vicinity. It is recommended 
that similar developments take place to serve the development area near other such 
facilities. A neighborhood park at Newnan's Lake (in the vicinity of University 
Avenue) as a part of the recommended regional park open space facility, is an example. 

It is anticipated that a community park will eventually be needed in the area 
of the public boat ramp on Newnan's Lake at Hawthorne Road, and It was also 
recommended that most of the low lying land in this area be included in an over- 
all major regional park facility at some time In the future. Within these facilites 
a minimum of a 5 acre neighborhood park should be developed to serve the surrounding 
urban population of this area. 

It is anticipated that several neighborhood park facilities could be constructed 
in the linear parkway running from the Mlllhopper down through the Hogtown Creek . 
basin to serve the residents of adjoining areas. The same is true of a facility in the 
vicinity of a small lake south of Terwilllger School, and possibly a facility could be 
developed In the regional park shown in the vicinity of Lake Kanapaha, although a 
neighborhood school was anticipated in this area eventually with additional acreage 
for a park shown in conjunction with same. 

-72- 



Finally, five sites were shown on the plan as being needed for new neighborhood 
park facilities not in conjunction withanyother type of recreation facility. Two are 
in the older built up areas of town and therefore it was anticipated that 5 acres would 
perhaps be all that could be acquired for these areas, although in both instances the 
possibrlity of urban redevelopment does exist. One area needing a neighborhood 
park is the vicinity of Jones, Finley and Lanier planning units, an area now served, 
but inadequately, by the Kiwanis Park located on 8th Avenue, It is recommended 
that the additional land not now utilized on the Finley School site be developed with 
some park facilities to serve part of the area. However, additional park Is needed, 
especially east of 13th Street In the Jones and south Lanier area. 

Another developed area not adequately served by park facilities Ismade up pri- 
marily of the Duval Planning Unit. Agal n 5 acres was recommended for this general 
area for a neighborhood park facility. This amount, in conjunction with the recently 
announced tot-lots in this area and the playground facilities at Duval, would bring 
the area up to near normal in regards to neighborhood recreation. 

Another site was recommended In the area of the Blven's Arm extension which 
lies between US 441 and South Main Street. Actually, this site could be considered 
as a development of a neighborhood facility in conjunction with an open space or 
regional park proposal; however, it was anticipated that this land might possibly be 
acquired not In fee title but by one of the other open space methods, and It was 
recommended that at least 12 acres be set aside to service the growing population 
of Kirkwood, Coiclough Hills and the apartment developments on SW 13th Street. 

It was also recommended that a full sized 12-15 acre neighborhood park be 
acquired south of the Williston Road cutoff in the Idylwild planning unit to service 
the area between there and the prairie. Because of the slow development of this area 
this site Is not needed immediately but will be needed to give adequate coverage 
to this area ultimately. This is assuming that a community park recommended for 
the same general area, but perhaps North of Williston Road, will be provided first. 
A similar situation exist in two other locations although specific reservations were 
not made In this plan because of the time span anticipated before substantial devel- 
opment will occur. These two areas are In the extreme Northeast section In the 
vicinity of SR 232 and SR 26 and in the Kincaid planning unit to fill in the gap 
between the facilities provided at Newnan's Lake and the existing park facilities 
at Boulware Springs in the same planning unit. 

Finally a facility of at least 12-15 acres Is recommended for the Northeast area. 
This facility will serve both a neighborhood park function, and as a site for additional 
community facilities to supplement Northeast park. This recommendation is discussed 
more fully in a following section. 

in summary, the plan recommends appioxtmately 189 acres be devoted to neighborhood 
park functions. Of this amount 49 acres represent separate parks to be acquired, and 
about 45 acres now exist. The remainder is recommended for development in conjunction 



-73- 



with other facilities. It should be noted however, that these facilities must be acquired 
in order for this plan to work. This is true particularly of the new school sites, at 
least one of which already has been purchased. If the regional facilities or the com- 
munity facilities are not acquired then this plan should be re-evaluated with the 
idea of acquiring separate neighborhood facilities to serve the same urban area popu- 
lation. 

The total of 189 acres, (which are located in 24 separate sites) would amount to 
a ratio of 1 . 6 acres per thousand persons. This is above the minimum of 1 acre/1,000 
but lower than the higher standard of two acres. Thus, while the recommendations of 
this report will serve the anticipated population of 1980, it will not suffice for the 
population for long thereafter. A summary of the existing and proposed facilities may 
be found in Table N/ili • 

Neighborhood Playgrounds 

Perhaps the most vital recreation facility in a community is the neighborhood 
playground. It is the facility closest to the people and receives perhaps the most 
utilization of all recreation facilities. The most common provision for neighborhood 
playgrounds is In conjunction with an elementary school, in addition, active organized 
play and Informal game areas frequently ore provided in full scale neighborhood parks. 

The suggested standards for neighborhood playgrounds is 1 to 2 acres per 1,000 
population with a minimum of a 5 acre site. (See Table VII). The maximum service 
area of such a facility is about 1/2 mile, or the limit of the walking distance for the 
lower age groups which would normally use such a facility. The basic age groups 
served by a neighborhood playground are 6 to 15 years old. 

The Recreation Study listed some 17 existing playground facilities. These included 
Gainesville High School which has a very limited use as a playground facility. Since 
that report was completed, three additional facilities have been added in conjunction with 
the Glen Springs, Majorie K'nnan Rowlings, and the Prairie View Elementary Schools. 
It is estimated that approximately 7 acres of each of the latter sites is devoted to play- 
ground activities. In addition a percentage of the Meadowbrook and Green Acres neigh- 
borhood park is devoted to playground use and a 5.2 acre playground has been dedicated 
to the City at the Woodland Park public housing site. This brings the approximate total 
acreage devoted to playgrounds to about 187.2 acres or approximately 2.2 acres per 
1,000 existing population (assuming 5 acres each at Meadowbrook and Green Acres is 
playground). In total, not including GHS, there are rK)w 23 existing playground facilities. 

Fourteen additional playground facilites ore recommended in the plan. These include a 
new playground at each of 9 proposed elementary schools in the Plan plus at two additional 
Junior High Schools. The letter two are not located on the Plan but it is generally assumed 
that at least one of these facilities would most likely be located in the 1-75 Archer Road 
Area. Assuming that 7 acres are provided with each elementary for playgrounds, and 10 
at each new Junior High, a total of 83 acres would be added to the existing playground 
acreage . 



-74- 



Three new complete neighborhood parks are recommended in the plan. These are 
located in the Idylwild section, near Biven's Arm (P. K. Yonge planning unit) and one 
in the Northeast area In the Highlands planning unit. It Is assumed that a portion of 
each of these neighborhood parks would be developed for playground use. Thus the 
total new acreage provided In the plan plus the existing acreage would amount to 
approximately 285 acres, or about 2.4 acres per 1,000 population projected for this 
urban area by 1980. 

It should be noted that the two equally important criteria In providing recreation 
facilities, i.e. an adequate amount as well as adequate service area to all developed 
areas of the community, will not be met by this plan. This Is because it will not 
be possible to locate a playground facility within approximately 1/2 mile from all 
the major developed areas which will be in existence by 1980. It is presumed, however, 
that reasonable coverage will result from the plan recommendations. (See Map Vlliy. 
In addition. It is recognized that far more elementary schools will be needed In the 
period following 1980. It is assumed that the policy of providing playgrounds with such 
elementary schools will be continued and that many of the schools will be located in 
the gaps which are now existing on the map, thus ultimately providing more adequate 
coverage. It must be strongly urged, however, that school sites be purchased In advance 
insofar as it is at all possible, because of the growing scarcity and rising cost of land. 

In summary, the neighborhood park and playground facilities will total 449 acres 
if all the recommendations are implemented. This would provide a total service of 
3.7 acres/1,000 population which Is below the upper standard but above the minimum, 
and hence adequate to serve the urban area needs to 1980. 

Community Parks 

Community Parks represent the largest intensively developed facility In most 
communities, providing large areas for active organized play plus facilities for 
passive recreation, picnicking, meeting space and other special activities. The 
facilities usually include athletic fields, game courts, playgrounds, picnic facilities, 
walks, and frequently such special facilities as swimming pools and Indoor meeting 
accommodations . 

The standards of the Gainesville Recreation Advisory Board call for two or 
three acres of community park per 1,000 population, with a minimum site of 25 
acres. The preferred service radius is up to 2 miles generally serving from 10,000 
to 25,000 people. 

Three facilities comprising a total of 84 acres were classified as community 
parks in the recreation inventory included In the Recreation Study. These are 
Lincoln Park in conjunction with the old Lincoln High School, Northeast Park 
on NE 16th Avenue, and Westside Park on West 34th Street. In addition, 
Meadowbrook Park, located less than one-half mile south of Lincoln provides 
meeting facilities which would normally be included in a community level 

-75- 



B 







CO 













z 






D 













X 













> 






< 






J 






a. 










< 







< 




I 







d 


z 


^ 






(D 


< 

CD 


< 

Q 

E 


I 


D 




J 







u 


y 


UJ 

J 
1 


J 
J 

> 

09 


z 


> 


III 

z 


1 


0) 
UJ 


< 




z 


z 




< 

J 


< 






QL 






z 













« 






h 






< 




0) 

D 

Q 

7,5 







o'^ 


y 




|_UJ 

<0 


q: 








Q 


-■uj 





UJ 


(/) 


z 


0) 





h 
(i) 



Q. 



liJ u 
N-J 
J? 


X 


(T 


< 


u 


1 


(r-|CM 






UJ 


( 


\ 


UJ z 


V 


/ 


o< 



park. All remaining facilities, including a swimming pool, lighted ballfield, practice 
fields and multi-purpose tennis courts are located on the Lincoln property. 

The Northeast Park has dressing facilities, lighted tennis courts, assorted playground 
equipment, and two lighted softball diamonds. It is opproximately 4 acres below the 
recommended 25 acres minimum and does not provide the full range of facilities which 
are available in the vicinity of the other two community parks. Since there is insuf- 
ficient room for expansion, it is recommended in this plan that consideration be given 
to a development of a dual use facility, such as exist in the Southeast, for the North- 
east area. That is, it is recommended that consideration be given to the develop- 
ment of a swimming pool and indoor meeting facility such as is provided by Meadowbrook 
Park in the far Northeast area of the community. A 15 acre neighbortiood park facility 
has been recommended for the area in the vicinity of NE 39th Avenue and 15th Street. 
This facility could be constructed in conjunction with this park. 

The most complete facility in the community is Westside Park, at least insofar as 
to the provision of all desired uses in a single location. While this 27 acre parcel 
surpasses the hypothetical minimum, service to a much larger population has already 
made this facility inadequate. A complete range of uses are provided at the park site 
including Indoor meeting rooms, active supervised recreation, swimming pool and 
passive recreation facilities such as picnicking. 

The total of 84 acres equals approximately one acre per 1,000 population, which is less 
than one-half of what would be recommended to service the current existing population 
of the urban area. It should be noted, however, that with a one and one-half to two 
miles service radius around each of these facilities, the major development areas of a 
community are being served from a location standpoint alone. (See Map IX). 

It Is believed that approximately 7 additional community parks will be necessary 
to ultimately provide adequate service to the whole urban area. This plan, however, 
recommends only 4 of these at the present time. It is recommended that these facilities 
be located approximately as follows: in the extreme Northwest section of the City, in 
the Mlllhopper or one of the adjacent planning units; West of 1-75 in the Glenwood or 
Kanapaha Planning units; In the Rocky Point or Idylwild planning unit (note that a 
neighborhood park Is recommended for whichever planning unit is not chosen for the 
community park in this area); and finally, a community park to be located in the 
extreme Eastern section of the Community, perhaps In the Hawthorne Rood-Newnan's 
Lake area. It should be noted that regional porks are recommended in the same 
vicinity as three of the four community park recommendations. Nothing in this recom- 
mendation should preclude the possiblity of developing the community park as a port 
of these regional facilities, if It is found after a thorough study that the potential uses 
of each of those recommended open space regional parks would not be diminished in 
purpose by such combined use. 



-77- 






bJ 

















< 








Q. 








(0 








< 


f 




z 
Id 


a. 
< 






Q. 





z s 
< ' 


n 






m g 







1 






z 


— ' -1 






< 


yi 


L 




(0 


SVIL 

OAINES 






q: 


y 






< 


z 


^ 




Q. 


< 




/ 




ir 




1 











-> 








< 








5 


ir 5 


1 




( 


J) Q. ^ 


o 

• 

0> 


q: 




ht 


■9 
m 





z 


^ z ^ 


m 


Q 
Z 
< 




h 
< 




UJ i 5 

U 1 5 

> 
QC ^ 


M 

o 


^ n 


u 


UJ 




2 Si 

-5 UJ 


J 

Q 
UJ 
N 

J 


MILE S 
JSTING 
OPOSED 


3 

E 
i 
o 
o 

M 
« 1 

e 1 


< n 


< 


ICM ^ ? 




? 


01- 


-|CM u Q. 


o 
u. 




liJ 


y^ - , 




■ 


z 


Of s 


Ul 

f- 


■ 


Ul 


z ( 


o 


■ 





< V y 





Assuming that 25 acres aieset aside for each of the four recommended facilities, 
100 acres would be added to the inventory of community parks, making a total of 184 
acres. This would provide approximately one and one-half acres per 1,000 population 
as anticipated by 1980. This is well below the 2 to 3 acres per 1,000 population 
recommended by the Recreation Advisory Board, but the coverage would appear to be 
adequate for most of the anticipated urban growth of the next ten years. Again, as 
with all of the recreation facilities, if at all possible it is recommended that ad- 
ditional sites above and beyond the minimum recommendations contained herein be 
purchased. It is recognized that these recommendations are minimum and will not 
service beyond the 1980 target date of this plan. 

Special Use Facilities 

There are several special - use facilities in the Gainesville Area including 
Harris Field (baseball field). Citizen's Field (football stadium), the Archery Range, 
Auto Driving Course, Florida State Museum, and several others, all of which are 
designed to serve needs which are specific in nature. Others such as the Boys Club, 
Recreation Center and Community Center serve a variety of needs in the form of 
both indoor and outdoor activities. 

These special - use facilities serve as supplements to the total area recreation 
program in that they help to fill deficiencies in the total program. Standards for 
special - use facilities vary from area to area according to existing and potential 
future conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the adequacy of existing 
special - use facilities in the Gainesville Area. It appears that the wide range of 
existing special - use facilities available to Gainesville Area residents are adequate 
to serve most of the current needs. Futjre considerations regarding special - use 
facilities might include expanding existing facilities, a civic center, municipal golf 
course, additional recreation buildings, and new Boys Club facilities. 

Semi-Public Recreational Facilities 



The majority of the semi-public facilites In the Gainesville Area are swim clubs 
and golf courses. These facilities serve as a supplement to the City recreation p rogram 
in that they reduce the need for similar public facilities in the area. These facilities 
are operated on a membership basis which means they serve a limited number of the 
population. 

The University of Florida, on the other hand, has athletic fields, tennis courts, 
etc. which are used by the student body as well as by non-university related persons. 
Certain University facilities such as the swimming pool and golf course are only 
available to faculty, staff, and students. Even with this restriction, the facilities 
on the campus lessen the recreation facilities demand on the Gainesville Recreation 
Program. 

-79- 



There are no public standards to measure the adequacy of the semi-public facilities. 
These standards are established by the owners or the associations who control each facility. 
Any additional semi-public facilities constructed in the area will further enhance the 
total recreation facilities programs for the Urban Area residents. 

Regional Parks and Open Space 

Regional parks are major recreation facilities providing both active and passive type 
recreation. They usually attempt to utilize the advantages of unique natural features 
and resources. The facilities provided usually include a mixture of nature trails, boating, 
swimming, picnicking, covered shelter, play equipment for yOung and old, informal game 
areas, and bridle paths. The recommended minimum size per 1,000 population is 3-4 
acres, with a minimum of TOO acres per regional park. The preferred service radius is 
10 miles and the population served is usually 25,000 people plus. These are deceptive 
standards, however, developed long before the current national concern over the pre- 
servation of open space for its own utility came to the attef^tion of most people. /vVore 
recent standards such as those contained in Planning Design Criteria* call for as much as 
15 acres per 1,000 population for major regional parks and reservations. In reality, 
numerous local factors must be taken into consideration for this level of facility. Among 
such considerations are the desire to preserve unique natural features of the locale worthy 
of such preservation, the total amount of such facilities available to a given area from 
all sources, and the desire to assure such facilities will be equally available to the whole 
urban area. 

The one existing regional park in the Gainesville Urban Area is Morningside Park 
located at East University Avenue and 35th Street. This park was purchased by the City 
from the General Service Administration in 1964 for $80,820. Funds for this purchase 
were raised as part of a general obligation bond issue. Morningside Park contains 278 
acres and development thus far consists of a paved access road and parking, picnic tables 
with benches, permanent lighted restrooms, and cooking grills. Further development of 
the park will proceed as funds become available. Immediate proposals for the development 
of Morningside Park Include marked nature trails and a nature center. The nature center 
would include displays of flower and plant life. This center could be used for the educa- 
tion of students In the natural and physical sciences. Future plans include a tent camping 
area with appropriate services. Since Morningside Park is the only regional park in the 
Urban Area, it should be completely developed as soon as possible. At the present time 
It Is providing approximately 3.3 acres of regional park per thousand of Urban Area popu- 
lation. 

The first regional park and/or open space proposed is located in the Northwestern 
quadrant of Gainesville. It has three distinct but interdependent components: 



* de Chlara, Joseph, and Koppelman, Lee, Planning Design Criteria, Van Nostrand Relnhold 
Company, New York, N. Y. 1969, page 203"! 



-80- 



The first component consists of the Millhopper . The Millhopper is a sinkhole 
approximately 130 feet deep and as wide as 450 feet across at some points and is 
believed to be the largest sinkhole in the Southeastern United States. The natural 
beauty and plant life of this area should be preserved. The Millhopper land is owned 
by the University of Florida with a deed restriction limiting it to park use. The 
University has not had the funds available for its development. Development of 
the A/ ill hopper into a park for use by University students as well as the City and 
County residents could be a joint project of all levels of government equally sharing 
their burden of development costs. Additional land should be bought to bring the 
total to an amount sufficient to develop a full scale regional park. 

The second component of the Northwest open space proposal is the acquisition 
of portions of the Hogtown Creek Basin and various tributary branches. The proposed 
greenbelt area- would begin in the vicinity of the Millhopper and extend to below 
8th Avenue traversing Northwood West, Madison Park, Brywood, and Westwood 
Planning Units. Not only would the acquisition of this property preserve valuable 
open space, it would also serve as a passive recreation park and as open space relief 
for the residents of the above planning units. 

The third possible component is In reality a secondary use of the greenbelt area 
formed by the Hogtown Creek basin. This component would be a limited access boule- 
vard through the center of the acquired greenbelt area. Such a facility would be 
a scenic drive system not only performing a vital traffic function, but more importantly 
would preserve a natural greenbelt and streambed area for posterity. A recent Traffic 
Quarterly journal article entitled "The Automobile and Recreation" related the findings 
of a survey done for State of Wisconsin Department of Resource Development. It stated 
that pleasure driving is the most popular form of outdoor recreation and that the number one 
attraction is scenery and sightseeing. The proposed boulevard would serve this purpose. 
It is believed that there could be a minimum of disruption to adjacent property because 
of the limited access and layout design confining movement to the interior of the system. 
The adjoining areas would in fact receive a substantial benefit in that the park area will 
remain primarily in its natural state. 

A second regional park and open space proposal would be Late Kanapaha, Sugarfoot 
Prairie and the surrounding area. As shown,the area covers approximately 1,550 acres 
with at least 400 acres of the total being under water. The entire floodplain of Hogtown 
Creek south of Newberry Road including Lake Kanapaha, Kanapaha Sink and Sugarfoot 
Prairie would form this area. As pointed out in the Department's Physiographic Survey, 
this area is highly subject to flooding. Because of the flooding possibilities and the 
occurrence of poor soils, the value of the area for urban development is greated reduced. 

With the proper development the area east of the Interstate could serve as permanent 
open space doing such urban work as providing a flood plain during the wet season and 
acting as a storage basin for flood waters. The Lake Kanapaha area could be of tremendous 
value to the residents of the Urban Area if it was, in conjunction with the uses above, 
used also as a recreation site. Facilities that could be included are swimming and boating 
areas, overnight tent camping facilities, nature trails, wildlife preservation areas and 
a stocked fishing lake. 

-81- 



It Is recommended that further in-depth studies of this area be conducted as soon as 
possible. They should be concerned primarily with the physical characteristics of the area 
and the positive functions this area serves to protect and enhance the physical environ- 
ment of the Urban Area. 

The fourth new park is located on the East side of the Urban Area at Newnan's 
Lake. In addition to the purpose of providing access to one of the areas greatest 
natural facilities, It could also be designed to provide a permanent open space-wild- 
life refuge on som.e of the land, which is basically marginal for development purposes 
but would serve very well for open space and recreation. 

Altogether, slightly less than 3,000 acres of regional park is recommended on 
the Plan. The exact amount was not determined as the actual boundaries were left 
flexible and subject to more specific delineation, especially in those areas where 
flood plains are involved, which cannot be determined without such additional study. 
This would exceed the needs for the population by 1980 and slightly exceed the 15 acres 
per thousand general standard for the estimated 173,000 population expected by 1990. 
It must be remembered, however, that the natural features sought to be protected are 
not repetitive, that is, once lost they cannot be recalled. Therefore, in this instance 
it would be wise to provide for the population beyond 1990, in order to save the features 
involved. 

It is not necessarily recommended that all portions of the proposed regional park 
network be purchased In fee title. The purpose would be served in some Instances if 
some other means of assuring continued existence as open space is used. In 

other communities such means have included scenic easements, waiver of taxes in 
return for guaranteed preservation as open space, etc. However, if some of the latter 
devices are used, which should be the subject of further intensive investigation and 
study. It Is Important that at least enough land be purchased to provide the facilities 
which will be intensively developed, such as neighborhood parks along the proposed 
greenbelt ranging north to the Millhopper. 

Conclusions 



For many years the accepted rule of thumb for gauging the adequacy of a community's 
recreation land was 10 acres for each one thousand people. Eventually this figure was 
broken down into different kinds of recreation facilities, usually playgrounds, neighbor- 
hood parks, community parks and regional parks. Other designations such as playfields 
and reservations are sometimes used. Most standards still amount to about ten acres per 
1,000 people, however. Including the standards developed for this community during 
the process of this study. 

In comparing the present facilities with the selected standards, inadequacies are 
apparent. About the only area where a reasonable amount of recreation is provided is 
local playgrounds, which are provided in conjunction with the existing schools. There are 
approximately 187 acres which could be labeled playground, a ratio of about 2.2 
acres/1,000 people (versus a standard of 1-2 acres). Even these, however, do not 
meet the locational standard of being within 1/2 mile of most of the built up, urban 
areas. There are only 45 acres of neighborhood parks, or less than 1/2 acre per 1,000 
people. 

-82- 



The selected standard for community parks is 2-3 acres/1,000, however, pre- 
sently only 84 acres or about 1 acre/1,000 people is provided. The regional or major 
park standard was 3-4 acres/1,000 persons. Standards prepared by Temple R.Jarrel I, 
Southern Representative of the National Recreation Association call for a minimum of 
5 acres, and the standards included in the new publication Planning Design Criteria* 
calls for 2 acres of "District Parks" plus 15 acres of "Regional Parks and Reservational" 
per 1,000 people . By the least of these standards the Urban Area is presently well 
served with 3.3 acres/1,000 people provided by Morningside Park. By the latter 
standard, it Is not. 

Not counting the regional park - open space proposals, a total of 633 acres are pro- 
vided on the Plan (See Table VIII). This amounts to 5.2 acres per 1,000 population. 
Again, not counting regional parks, this is quite in line with the local recommendation 
of 4-7 acres per 1,000 population and the 5 acres per 1,000 recommended by Jarrell. 
It h well below the 8.5 acres/1,000 recommended In Planning Design Criteria. 

There is no adequate gauge for the amount of open space which should be preserved 
The 3,000 acres of combined open space - regional parks recommended herein exceeds 
the normal rules of thumbs for the latter, taken alone, but in the judgement of the staff 
and Plan Board, represent a reasonable provision for protecting vital natural physical 
features of the area, and provides for a balance in the long range urban development 
pattern. 

A recent article in the newsletter "Florida Planning and Development "** said the 
ideal state (regional) park should be located in such a manner as to permit travel to 
and from the facility, spend at least five hours there, and return, all in one day. 

In addition, parks should ideally be located near where the people are. By computer, 
the author of this article sought to determine the ideal locations for all state parks. 
The results were recommendation of five such parks for Alachua County. While 
the locations were hypothetical — they ranged from 3 miles east of Gainesville to 
14 miles northwest — the important point is that the logic of locating such facilities 
near the Urban Area and the number of such facilities is consistent with the recom- 
mendations contained herein. 



* de Chiara, Joseph, and Koppelman, Lee, Planning Design Criteria , Van Nostrand Reinhold 
Company New York, N. Y., 1969. 



** 



Jones, Douglas H. "Future Park Locations in the State of Florida "Florida Planning and 
Development, Fl orida Atlantic University, Department of Social Science, Volume 20 No. 8, 
September, 1969. 

-83- 



TABLE VIM 

EXISTING AND PROPOSED RECREATION FACILITIES 
GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 
1980 



Facility 



Neighborhood Park 



Name or General Location 
(Planning Unlt\ 
Existing 
Green Acres 
K I wa n I s 

Meadowbrook Park 
Smoky Bear Park , 
Bouleware Springs 



Arec 


1 




Existing 


Proposed 


Total 


19.0 





19.0 


2.5 





2.5 


13.0 





13.0 


5.5 




5.5 


5.0 


10 


15.0 



Proposed 

(New Elementdry Schools) 



Glen Springs 

Northwood East - Richland Heights 

Pine Grove - West Park 

Santa Fe ^ 

Glenwood 

Kanapaha 

Arrendondo 

(in conjunction with New Regional 
Parks: ) 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



Mornlngslde 
Newnan's Lake 
Parkway 4-5 sites 
Terwill iger 

(In conjunction with Community Parks:) 

Mlllhopper- Pine Grove 
Kanapaha - Glenwood 
Rocky Point 

(New Facilities:^ 















10 


10 





20-25 


20-25 





5 


5 



Total Neighborhood Parks (24 sites) 









5 
5 
5 



5 
5 
5 



Jones/Lanier Planning Unit 





5 


5 


Duval 





5 


5 


P K Yonge (Biven's Arm) 





12 


12 


Idylwlld 





12 


12 


Highlands 





15 


15 



45 



144 



189 



-84- 



Existing 



Neiahborhcxjd 


Meadowbrook 


(5)4 





Plavgpound 


G re e n Ac re s 


{5) 







TumbI in Creek 


4 







]^ Elemenfar)' ond Junior 


loS 







High Sifes 








Woodland Pork (Piiblic Housing) 


5.2 







Proposed 


• 





*^ Ness Elementary (See locations 

above) 

2 Ness Junior High (Locations not 

specified) 

3 New Neighborhood Parks 



63 



20 
(15) 



4 

(5)' 

4 

5.2 



4*^ 



20 



Sub Total 



177.2 



260.2 



Community Porks 



Existing 
Lincoln 
Northeast 
Westside 



oo 
21 
27 



o6 
21 
27 



Proposed 

Mi Ill-topper 

Glenwood - Kanopaha 

Rocky Point 



4 

25^ 

25^ 



GRAND TOTAL 
Acres 1,000 people* 



306.2 327 

3.7(1970) 



25^ 

25^ 
25^ 





Lakeshore (Newnan's boat ramp areal 





25 


25 


Total 




84 


100 


184 





633.2 

5.3 (1^80) 



* Note: This table does not include regional park facilities. 

Boulessare Springs is actually tiot a park, but is the original source of Gainesville's ssater 
suoply, and is still used for water by the power plant . It does contain picnic facil ities sshich 
ore asailable for use on a reservation basis. In addition it contains a police shooting longe 
and prisate gun club on the gtounds, which total some 34 acres. It is recommended that this 
x3cilits be made available for neighborhood park, especially as its present use is phased out. 
"Could be In conjunction ssith regional park. 

The exact acreage attributable to neighborhood service canr-tot be specified. 
.Counted In above totals, assumes minimum of 5 acres devoted to playground use. 

One of two eventually foreseen for this general area, 5 acres should be added for local 
ne ii^hborhood facilities. 



I" 



-85- 



OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES 



Fire Protection 



The Gainesville Fire Department presently has five (5) fire stations. The 
location of these stations is based primarily upon response distances and value of 
the districts being served. Fire protection is presently provided for all areas within 
the City Limits. The Fire Department does not have any type of contractural agree- 
ment for fire protection with any of the areas outside the City and fire protection 
in these areas is provided only on a voluntary basis, with initial response limited to 
one engine; whereas two are normally sent to a fire inside the City. 

The area within the Gainesville Corporate Limits currently comprises approximately 
26 square miles and has an estimated population of 67,000. The City is divided into 
six (6) service areas which are provided with fire protection by the existing five fire 
stations, each of which is assigned to protect at least two areas in combination with 
another station. 



Fire Department Standards 



The Gainesville Fire Department attempts to base its fire station or company 
distribution and responses to fire alarms on standards developed by the American 
Insurance Association. The standard response distance for the "first-due" engine 
company to high value districts is 1-1/2 mile for districts requiring fire flow less 
than 4,500 gpm. The standard response distance is 1 mile for districts requiring 
fire flows of 4,500 gpm or greater, but less than 9,000 gpm. The standard response 
distance is 3/4 mile for districts requiring flow of 9,000 gpm or more. In Gainesville 
the high value downtown and University of Florida areas require a fire flow of 
approximately 6,000 gpm which means that the response distance for the first-due 
engine company is 1 mile. Table IX provides the standard response distances for 
different types of districts according to the type of fire company. 



Responses to Alarms 



Responses to business and manufacturing districts Is based on required fire flow 
rather than population. The following table contains the recommended alarm response 
distances by type of districts. 



-86- 



Type of District 



Required Fire Flow 



Companies Required 



Business and Manufacturing 

Business and Manufacturing 
Business and Manufacturing 



less than 2,000 gpm 

2,000 -4, 500 gpm 
9,000 +gpm 



2 engine companies and 
ladder service as may be 
needed 

2 engine companies 

1 ladder company 

3 engine companies 

2 ladder companies 



Standard alarm response for residential districts are as follows: Not less than 
two engine companies and adequate ladder equipment. In densely built areas where 
buildings consist of apartments, hotels, or where the life hazard is higher, the response 
should be greater and in some cases equal to that for business and manufacturing districts. 

Future Needs Before 1980 

The primary determinants of the direction of a community 's growth are the 
existence of utilities and the quantity of suitable residential land. Community 
facilities such as parks, schools, improved thoroughfares, and shopping areas usually 
closely follow growth to service the newer areas. The Utilities Department is currently 
extending municipal utilities westward beyond Interstate 75. This follows a trend which 
has been apparent in Gainesville since WoddWar II. Completion of the first phase of 
the new Santa Fe Junior College site, planned in the early 70's should also stimulate 
residential development in the Northwest. 

The impact of mobile home park development along Archer Road outside the 
City is expected to continue during the next ten years. The relative importance of 
mobile homes for providing new dwelling units has increased significantly In the past 
few years with much of this growth being along Archer Road. In addition, several other 
areas in this Southwestern quadrant having close proximity to the University are expected 
to see significant Inroads of apartments within the next ten years. With the likely 
annexation of the City of thesedeveloping areas during the planning period to 1980, 
the adequate provision of fire protection will have to be met. It might be appropriate 
to point out that of the estimated current population of 83,000 in the Urban Area, 
approximately 16,000 live outside the City, the majority of which live west of the 
City. Population projections made by the Department of Community Development 
Indicate that approximately 120,000 persons will live in Gainesville Urban Area by 1980. 

The Gainesville Fire Department Is presently endeavoring to relocate Fire Station 
Number 2 from 321 NW 10th Street to a site near NW 20th Street on West University 
Avenue. This new facility will contain both a pumper and a ladder company which 
would service primarily the University of Florida and the surrounding high density 
development. This relocation Is expected to occur within the next five years . 



-87- 



TABLE IX 
STANDARD RESPONSE DISTANCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES 



Type of Disirlcf 


Type of First- 
Due Company 


Required Fire Flow 


Standard Response 
Distance 


High Value 


Engine 


less than 4,500 gpm 


1-1/2 mile 


High Value 


Engine 


4,500-9,000 gpm 


1 mile 


High Value 


Engine 


9,000 + gpm 


3/4 mile 


Residential 


Engine 


Not Applicable 


2 miles 


Widely Dispersed 
Residential 


Engine 


Not Applicable 


4 miles 


Residential 


Engine 


2,000 + gpm 


1-1/2 miles 


High Value 


Ladder 


less than 4,500 gpm 


2 miles 


High Value 


Ladder 


4,500 - 9,000 gpm 


1-1/4 miles 


High Value 


Ladder 


9,000 + gpm 


1 mile 


Residential 


Ladder 


Not Applicable 


3 miles 


Widely Dispersed 
Residential 


Ladder 


Not Applicable 


4 miles 


Residential 


Ladder 


2,000 gpm 


2 miles 



Source: American Insurance Association 



-88- 



Based upon the response distance criteria given above, a generalized response 
distance map was made. This illustration, which follows, shows the general areas 
which fire fighting equipment would serve using the existing and expected street 
networks. The relocation of Fire Station Number 2 is assumed in this discussion. It 
is apparent that there is a vast developing area in the Northwest (outside the City 
Limits) which presently is inadequately protected against fires. The South and South- 
west also have inadequate fire protection. 

The four dashed areas with symbols in the geographic centers indicate approximate 
locations for new fire stations and fire service areds by 1980. These general locations 
are: 

No. 6 On Wi I listen Road near the proposed extension of SW 23rd Terrace. 
It is believed this location would serve the existing and expected 
apartment development in this Southwest area as well as have a 
direct link to the University and the medical complex and the SW 
13th Street high value areas. Both an engine company and ladder 
company will be needed at this site. 

No. 7 On NW 23rd Boulevard approximately 1-1/2 miles west of NW 
43rd Street. This location would provide fire protection for the 
heart of the existing single family growth areas in the western 
portion of the Urban Area as well as serve the new Santa Fe Junior 
College site. 

No. 8 Near the intersection of NW 34th Street at NW 39th Avenue. 
This. fire station would provide fire protection to the Brywood, 
Northwood and Madison Park residential areas which are rapidly 
developing. 

No. 9 Near the intersection of SE 43rd Street at Hawthorne Road . This 
location would provide fire protection for a presently scattered 
residential area with good proximity to the existing Lake Forest 
Elementary School and a new junior senior high school under 
construction. After discussion with Fire Department personnel, 
it was concluded that this location would probably house two 
engine companies ultimately. This would be necessary to provide 
adequate protection for the large area between two public lands 
to the North - Northeast and the prairie to the south. Two locations 
were not chosen in this area because a single locations south or 
north of Hawthorne Road would not adequately serve the present 
and near future urbanized areas, and two stations could not be 
justified for the near future. 



-89- 



Future Needs After 1980 

While the exact locations of additional fire stations needed to meet expanding 
urban demands after 1980 cannot be spotted precisely in the Gainesville Urban Area, 
general locations for additional fire stations are indicated. The locations have been 
approximated by assuming a natural pattern of extension of major streets. The 
limitations to urban growth presented by such areas as Lake Kanapaha and the flood 
plain of Hog Town Creek have also influenced the location of additional fire stations. 

Illustration No. X indicated that perhaps five (3) additional fire stations 
(12 In total) will be needed after 1980 to serve the ultimate Urban Area residents. 
This number may increase or decrease due to variations in the Intensity of expected 
urban development in the long range future. One of the three shown for after 1980 
near the Intersection of Tower Road and Archer Road may be needed before one 
of the NW section stations due to the rapid development of this area. 

Library 



The Gainesville Public Library dates back to 1904 when the 20th Century Club, 
now the Gainesville Women's Club, raised funds to buy books which were stored on 
three shelves in the Presbyterian Manse. In 1915 a Carnegie Grant was secured for 

the purpose of building a new Library. This new Library was opened in 1918. In 1956 
the Library was rebuilt and opened at is former site on East University, now the location 
for the court facilities for the City of Gainesville. In 1959 the Library became head- 
quarters for the Santa Fe Regional Library when Bradford County joined with Alachua 
County to form same. The Gainesville Public Library administered and was the central 
headquarters for the Regional Library. In 1962 Union County also joined the Santa Fe 
Regional Library. 

Since that time the Union and Bradford Counties have withdrawn their support and 
membership In the Regional Library, and the Library now serves the City of Gainesville 
and Alachua County. According to the current operating budget, approximately 50% 
of the support for the Library is provided by the City of Gainesville with approximately 
44% provided by Alachua County and the remaining 6% from the State and from fines 
and service fees. The current budget is $252,500.00. 

In April, 1968 a survey report was completed for the Santa Fe Regional Library 
by Louis M. Nourse, a consultant from Tallahassee, Florida. Numerous shortcomings 
were pointed out in this report. While the new Library facility, located in the Civic 
Center area, had not yet been opened when the report was written, it noted that the 
total size was approximately half of what was recommended by the building consultant. 



-90- 




(0 




h 









a. 




h 




(0 




n 


< 




u 




q: 


LJ 


< 







z s 


— 


< 


> 


CD ^ 


d 


q: i 
3 s 


UJ 


b. 


(0 


J (D 




_ III 




> ? 


z 


(0 





z 


h 


< 




< 




h 




(0 




LJ 




a: 





CO 






z 














1- 




00 


< z 







1- r 


00 


(r 


(/) S 


0) 


u 






h 


. 1 X 


V 


ii 


(jJ y 


(D 


< 


q: - 






C Ld 


p 


< 



It also noted that in several Important aspects the Library did not measure up 
to the Florida Library Association standards. For example, the FLA recommendations 
call for five dollars percapita to be expended for Library services. Assuming a 
population of approximately 100,000 to date in the County, the appropriation is almost 
exactly one half of this amount. In fairness, however, it should be pointed out that 
very few communities in the State have been able to achieve this standard. In this 
report, Mr. Nourse pointed out that the highest Regional Library expenditure was 
the Jacksonville - Nassau County Library, at $4.12 percapita. On a statewide basis 
only $1 .71 percapita was provided in 1967, according to this report. This is well 
below the $4.71 provided by the highest state. New York. 

in terms of the total number of books recommended percapita, the Library is 
also well behind the standard. The Florida Library Association recommends two to 
two and one - half books for each person in the service area. At the time when the 
consulting report was completed, the Santa Fe Regional Library provided .69 books 
percapita. This is now slightly higher at approximately .77 books percapita. This 
increase is due in part to new additions and in part to the fact that two participating 
counties have withdrawn and therefore the population figure was lowered. 

The FLA also recommends that approximately one book be purchased for every 
four persons in the community. With approximately 100,000 people in the County, 
this would mean an acquisition of approximately 25,000 books per year. In 1969 
8, 187 books were acquired. The total collection in December, 1969 numbered 
77 , 142. Finally, Florida Library Association standard is for one staff person for 
each 2,000 population. Therefore, approximately 50 persons should be employeed 
in the library system for the County of Alachua. The budgeted Staff in the current 
year is 29 employees. 

While in comparison to the above mentioned standards the present Library may 
seem to be woefully inadequate, it should be pointed out that a large percentage 
of the County residents are either students or employees of the University of Florida. 
These persons have access to the extensive library facilities at the University as do, 
in fact, all residents of the State. This fact, however, is not generally well known 
to the public. Thus, in the provision of library facilities iior the community, an 
effort must be made to insure that the facilities are complementary to each other. 
This cooperation already exists in certain areas. For example, the Gainesville Public 
Library has recently completed indexing and recording on microfilm the local news- 
paper dating back to it's early beginnings. This excellent facility is becoming well 
used by personnel of the University. 

Mr. Nourse's report contained many recommendations for the improvement 
and upgrading of the library system. It is recommended that this report be consulted 
for a more complete understanding of this particular community facility. 

-92- 



One of the recommendations with regards to the physical aspects of the library 
was immediate expansion of the new building. Because it was not designed for such 
expansion, this may prove to be an impossible task. Considerable discussion has 
been given to the possibility of expanding by locating branches in strategic locations 
throughout the community. As the present facility becomes more crowded , no doubt 
more consideration will be given to this proposal. To date, however, it is believed 
that insufficient data and experience in the present building makes it impossible to 
firmly recommend that such branches be established. Mr. Nourse's recommendation 
that a book trailer be purchased for use in the larger shopping centers to demonstrate 
the need for branches represents a sound approach. 



Police Protection - Gainesville Urban Area 



There are currently four law enforcement agencies serving the Gainesville 
Urban Area. These are the Florida Highway Patrol, the Alachua County Sheriff's 
Department, the Gainesville Police Department, and the University of Florida Campus 
Police. These four agencies compliment each other, both in terms of personnel and 
physical facilities. 

The primary emphasis of this section however, will be to describe the existing 
and anticipated Gainesville Police Department. The reason for the emphasis upon 
the latter is that the Gainesville Police Department has direct responsibility for law 
enforcement within the Corporate Limits of Gainesville, which currently accounts 
for an estimated 67,000 persons of the total Urban Area population of approximately 
83,000. The quantity and quality of police protection for the Urban Area during 
this decade will likely be borne by this agency through City population growth and 
physical growth through possible annexations. The proper planning for police protection 
to serve this growth prior to need should always be an on-going process and is essential 
for the most efficient use of the resources made available for this very vital urban service. 



Gainesville Police Department 



The primary responsibility of this department is to enforce the law, both through 
punitive action and preventative action. An example of the latter is the relatively 
new mobile Community Sen/ice Unit (CSU) of the Gainesville Police Department. 
This unit travels throughout the City providing "ear" for any complaints regarding 
local government 



-93- 



The present police building is located at 721 NW 6th Street and was constructed 
in 1953 and designed so that future expansions could be incorporafed with a minimum 
of problems. A major addition was made in 1962 (the year the City annexed 18 
square miles) and minor additions in 1967 and 1968. Purchase of property to the 
north up to NW 8th Avenue is underway to allow room for another addition and more 
parking area. The feasibility of purchasing property east of the present site is also 
being studies to provide room for more parking and an expansion of the present vehicle 
service facilities. 

As indicated above, the Police Department plans to retain it administrative 
function and jail at the present site and expand in this area as future needs arise. It 
is not expected that the Gainesville Police Department will open precinct substations 
in the near future. Rrstof all, this type of activity would only be feasible if the area 
population increased much more than the present estimates and secondly, the operation 
of substations is very expensive because of the need for a duplication of police records, 
among other things. 

The recommended size of the Gainesville Police Department In December of 
1969 was 113 sworn personnel and 35 civilians, however, the actual number employed 
was 98 sworn and 27 civilians. With an increasing population, the Police Department has 
had to respond to an increasingly greater number of calls as Is indicated in Table X. 



TABLE X 

POLICE ACTIVITY 
GAINESVILLE POLICE DEPARTMENT 



1963 



1964 1965 



1966 1967 



Calls for Police Service 



Persons Arrested 



Part I Crimes 



Part II Crimes 



Motor Vehicle Accidents 



11,886 15,641 18,017 19,630 21,866 

6,023 7,604 10,420 10,110 9,677 

688 956 939 

1,027 1,341 1,272 

1,693 2,016 2,059 



1,033 1,144 
1,317 1,313 
1 , 930 1 , 783 



Source: Community Facilities and Recreation Study , Department of Community Development 
Table 13, May 1968. 



-94- 



With an anticipated 1980 Urban Area population of approximately 120,000 persons, 
correspondingly larger numbers of both sworn personnel and civilian personnel will 
be needed. To meet the current and future demands for quality trained personnel 
the Sante Fe Junior College, in cooperation with the Police Department, offers a 
mandatory course of 200 classroom hours In Police Standards. In addition, all new 
sworn personnel obtain between 250 to 300 hours of on the job training. Many 
senior police personnel take the aforementioned course as a refresher, while some 
continue class at Santa Fe Junior College on a part-time basis to obtain the two 
year associate degree in Law Enforcement. 

The Gainesville Police Department has recently had a series of reports 
prepared by its Planning and Research Unit which surveys the current situation and 
makes recommendations concerning additional manpower, organization, training 
and education, new equipment and techniques, and participation in regional police 
planning and facilities. These reports are titled as follows and are available for 
inspection: 

Part I Police Services in Gainesville, Florida 

(Survey and Recommendations) 

Part II Proposed Departmental Organization Manual 

Part III Proposed Procedural Manual Communications Center 

Part IV Proposed Procedural Manual Field Reporting 

Alachua County Sheriff's Department 



Alachua County maintains a Sheriff's Department which is housed in a facility 
at 913 SE 5th Street In Gainesville. This building includes administrative offices, 
a jail, and maintenance facilities. The Sheriff also maintains an office In the Alachua 
County Courthouse. 

There are currently 72 sworn personnel and 14 civilians employed In the Sheriff's 
Department. The primary responsibility of this police agency is to provide law enforce- 
ment services for the unincorporated areas of the County. However, contractual 
police services are provided to the small communities of Hawthorne, MI canopy, and 
Archer. There is also a working agreement between the Gainesville Police Department 
and the Sheriff's Department where assistance, both physical facilities and personnel, 
will be available to each other as the special needs for same oi»ise. The feasibility 



-95- 



of combining the Sheriff's Department and the Gainesville Police Department, or 
at least combining the separate jails of these two agencies Is a matter of consideration 
at the present time. Such a move was recently recommended by a Citizens Govern- 
ment Study Committee. The desirability and feasibility of such a move cannot at 
this point be stated with certainty, but in any event would likely take several years 
to Implement. 



University of Florida Police Department 



The University of Florida Police Department headquarters is located on Radio 
Road on the Campus. This agency has 50 sworn officers and 5 civilians In Its employ. 
The primary responsibility of this department is law enforcement on the campus, however, 
the staff is on call to assist the other law enforcement agencies described herein and 
vice versa in cases of emergency. 



Florida Department of Public Safety 



The Florida Highway Patrol of the Florida Department of Public Safety maintains 
a station In the Gainesville Area on North US 441 . This patrol station is the head- 
quarters for the Florida Highway Patrolmen assigned to Alachua County and the Gaines- 
ville Urban Area, and also Is the driver's license examination center for this area. 
This office also serves as the District Office for seven north-central Florida counties. 
The current staff assigned to this office consists of 16 sworn personnel and 10 civilians. 



Region II Law Enforcement Planning Council 



The Region II Law Enforcement Planning Council has recently been established 
and serves 14 north central Florida counties and complements the other six such 
agencies within the State of Florida. This is a State agency whose efforts are de- 
signed to upgrade and coordinate law enforcement within the State. For example, 
the Council is currently developing a recommendation for State approval to con- 
solidate communications systems. 



The Region II Law Enforcement Council currently has on eight member council, 
consisting of 4 sheriffs and 4 chiefs of police. It is likely that future additions will 
contain city and county commissioners and private citizens for advisory purposes. The 



-96- 



: 'aff or the Council currently consists of an assistant director and secretary with the 
uireolor position now open. 

S;hcol Needs- Urban Area, 1980 



Projected Enrollment, Elementary Schools: Kindergarten through Grade 6 

The total school enrollment In the Urban Area, including St. Patricks, totaled 
17,721 last fall (1969) for all grades kindergarten through grade 12. This was broken 
down as follows: 

Number Percent of Total 



Kindergarten 




1,253 


7.07 


Grades 


1-6 


8,941 


50.45 




7-9 


4,125 


23.28 




10-12 


8,412 


19.20 




Total 


17,721 


100.00 



Since last fall, however, considerable shifting has occurred in compliance with 
court ordered integration in February, 1970. This resulted in the closing of Lincoln 
High School and its subsequent conversion to a vocational school, and also resulted 
in busing many pupils into the UrbanArea frcm other areas of the County. Therefore, 
in certain respects the results and conclusions contained hereinafter are somewhat 
d Istorted, at least to the extent that such shifts as those mentioned are always 
possible. Jhe projections, however, reflect what is believed necessary to accom- 

modate those pupils from the Urban Area. 

The 1969/70, 1967/68, and 1959/60 enrollments were compared to the estimated 
population for these periods to form a basis for projecting future enrollment. The results 
of this comparison are shown in Table XI. This table is based on the ratio of the estimated 
population in the earlier part of the year compared to the October enrollment for that 
school year. For example, the 1960 census represents the population in April of that 
year which is compared to the October, 1959 enrollment data. Also included is the 
initial projected enrollment for 1980 as prepared In the Population Study (See Table 55). 



-97- 



TABLE XI 

COMPARATIVE SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND POPULATION, GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

1960, 1967, 1969 and 1980 

1960 1967 1969 1980* 



Enroll- 
Grades ment 


No 


Julati 


000 
'on 


Enroll- 
ment 


No./L 
Popula 


,000 
tion 


Enroll- 
ment 


- No./I, 000 
Population 


Enroll- No. /I, 000 
ment Population 


K 784 




15 




1,154 


15 




1,253 


15 


1,680** 


14 


1-6 6,116 




115 




8,496 


113 




8,941 


108 


12,600*** 


105 


7-9 .2,506 




47 




3,830 


51 




4,125 


50 


6,300 


52 


10-12 1,791 




34 




2,870 


38 




3,402 


41 


4,900 


41 


11,197 




211 




16,350 


217 




17,721 


214 


25,480 


212 


Estimated 
Population 53, 


111 






7^. 


500 






82,700 


120,340 



* Preliminary Projections from the Population Study 
** The revised estimate was 2,000 
*** The revised estimate v/as 13,800 

The primary purpose of this review was to update the preliminary projections 
prepared earlier in the Population Study and prepare final projections of school needs 
for 1980. From subsequent reviews the total population projection contained in the 
Population Study of 120,340 was found to be acceptable. An examination of the 
data in the above table would lead to the conclusion that the projections therein 
are also quite in line with the apparent trends. 

More recent information, however, has led to the conclusion that the 
preliminary projections for grades K-6 are perhaps conservative. One of the important 
reasons for this conclusion was a recent announcement of a slight upturn in the birth 
rate for the State. This increase was attributed to the fact that the so called "war 
babies" are now reaching the child bearing ages. Their children will of course be 
included in the K-6 enrollment during the planning period. Another reason is that 
decreasing involvement in Viet Nam, at least in terms of the numbers of men stationed 
there, will lead to a significant influx of returning servicemen , which historically 
has been accompanied by an increase in the birth rate. Again, these children would 
likely be in school before 1980. 



-98- 



Another reason is directly related to the presence of the University in the Community, 
A percentage of the University students are married and their children generally are of 
pre-school, kindergarten or elementary school age. Presumably^ since there will be 
a shift in the future toward more graduate students who are more likely to be married, 
this will mean an increase in the proportions of K-6 students. 

There also seems to have been a higher percentage of those eligible enrolling 
in kindergarten each year. This conclusion was reached by comparing the percentage 
which one year's kindergarten enrollment is of the next year's first grade enrollment. 
Presumably the only difference between two such figures, for example, the 1967 
kindargartsn enrollment and the 1968 first grade enrollment, would be migration. If 
migration is assumed to be at a fairly constant rate the percentage derived should also be. 

It has, however, been rising constantly since 1961, leading to the conclusion that 
a (.igher percentage of the eligible children are going to kindergarten. The actual 
percentage was 59,6 in 1961 and 76.2 in 1967. It was therefore concluded that there 
will be a demand for more and more kinderga-^ten education in the future. In the recent 
past there has been increasing attention given to the ability of the very young to learn, 
as v/ell as the need for formal instruction at an earlier age. It seems reasonable to 
presume that at least an increase in attendance by those eligible will continue here, 
and that this will result in the need for more classrooms by 1980. 

Based on these above considerations it was determined that a revision of the 
kindergarten and elementary school enrollments was in order. After considerable 
Investigation and examination of alternative projections a revised estimate based on 
an average of 115 students per 1 ,000 population (the ratio which existed in 1960) 
was selected as the best for the 1-6 group category. Based on a total population of 
120,340 this revised estimate is 13,800 (compared to the original estimate of 12,600 
of this category). 

The new kindergarten estimate is 2,000. Again several alternative projections 
were made and examined. One was found by comparing the actual kindergarten 
enrollment for each of the past several years with the following year's first grade 
enrollment. The percentage found was then projected to 1980, and multiplied by 
various mechanically derived first grade enrollment projections for 1981 . This pro- 
jection compared favorably with least squares projection of 2,019 (based on the 
enrollment since 1960) which latter figure was therefore accepted. 



Need for new Elementary Schools 



The projected need for new elementary schools was based on certain assumptions 
regarding the existing school plants in addition to the overall numbers expected to be 
enrolled as calculated earlier. Foremost of these assumptions is that each existing 
school will be brought into alignment with the recommended student capacity as contained 



-99- 



In the December, 1967, Updating of Survey of School Plants, Alachua County, 
February, 1965 by the State Department of Education. Table Xllcontalns a comparison 
of the latest enrollment data and the recommended capacity of the elementary schools 
In the Urban Area. 

Accurate projection is made difficult by the fact that kindergarten classes are 
generally run on double sessions. At the same time capacity is figured on the basis 
of one shift, since classrooms must be shifted from grade to grade according to the 
demand during any given school year. The result is that the need Is probably slightly 
overstated; however, it is believed that the overall estimates are conservative in the 
first place and that the difference would not amount to a whole school. 

The total recommended capacity of the existing elementary schools in the Urban 
Area Is estimated to be 9,541. Since the projected total K-6 enrollment in 1980 is 
15,800, new facilities will be required for 6,259 students. The basic desired elementary 
school size, according to the most recent "updating survey", Is 678 students excluding 
kindergarten. Assuming two kindergarten classrooms at 25 pupils each, the total 
capacity would be 728. 

A total of 9 new elementary schools would therefore be required by 1980 (6,259 
divided by 728 = 8.6). If It Is assumed that the kindergarten classes will be doubled 
up, and the capacity is therefore 778, the need would be 8 elementary schools. It 
should be noted that the most recently passed bond issue contained provisions for four 
new elementary schools only three of which are now completed. The total of 

nine needed by 1980 would Include this fourth school. 



Projected Future Enrollment in Junior-Senior High Schools 



The future enrollment for both junior and senior high school as projected In the 
Population Study were re-examined and found to be acceptable. These projections 
were 6,300 for grades 7-9 and 4,900 for grades 10-12. Both figures represent a higher 
proportion of persons In these age groups In the total populations than was estimated 
for recent school years, and is greater than was the case in 1960. For example, in 
1960 the number of students attending grades 7-9 was 47 per thousand. By 1967 this 
figure was estimated at 51 and for 1969 the number was 50. The accepted projections. 
In both cases, i.e., 52 per thousand for junior high and 41 per thousand for senior 
high, are less than a simple projection of the previous estimates would Indicate. To this 
extent they represent somewhat conservative figures. They were accepted however, 
on the basis that the 1967 and 1969 figures are estimated and could well be liberal, 
depending on the soundness of the population estimates on which they are based. 



-lOO- 



TABLE XII 



School 



MEMBERSHIP AND RECOMMENDED CAPACITY OF URBAN AREA 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

1 



Membership K-6 


Recommended Capacity 


Sept. /Oct. 


by Update 


1969 


1967 


625 


690 + 2K^ 


814 


687 


642 


678 


609 


728^ 


484 


558 + 2K 


487 


575 + 2K 


620 


690 


884 


636 


793 


672 


836 


627 


576 


728^ 


668 


728^ 


778 


678 


743 


666 + 2K 



Duval 

Finley 

Foster 

Glen Springs 

Idylwild 

Kirby- Smith 

Lake Forest 

Lanier 

Littlewood 

Metcalfe 

Prairie View 

Rowlings 

Terwilliger 

Williams 



P. K. Yonge 
St. Patricks 



420^ 
209' 



Total; 



9,341 +8K 



Total recommended capacity 9,541 (Including K). 

1 . These membership figures for Fall, 1969 do not include shifts which occurred due 
to complete integration in February, 1970. 

2. K = Kindergarten, estimated @ 25 per classroom. 

3. Figures based on previous enrollment. 

4. St . Patricks data based on previous enrollment. 

5. Assumes ultimate capacity will be at the recommended size. 



-101- 



Junior - Senior High Schools 



The shifts in pupil attendance areas, the closing of Lincoln High as a normal 
school and reopening as a vocational school, a new emphasis on vocational education 
in general and the construction of tv^o new combined junior-senior high school, all 
have combined to make analysis and recommendations regarding future new junior 
high schools very, very difficult. Presumably the total enrollment forecasts reported 
above are still valid as to numbers from the Urban Area, but future distribution accord- 
ing to schools is not so easily predicted. 

The projected junior high enrol Iment for 1 980 was 6, 300 which was 2, 1 75 more 
than last Fall's membership. Based on a recommended junior high school size of 
1 ,200 pupils and subtracting 21 students for P. K . Yonge, exactly 5 schools would 
be needed to serve the Urban Area alone. Presently two junior high schools exist in 
the community in addition to P. K. Yonge: Westwood and Howard Bishop. Both are 
currently running on double sessions with Westwood serving the pupils of the newBuchholz 
School now under construction in the afternoon^ and likewise Bishop doubling up with 
the new Eastslde School . 

The projected enrollment for high schools for the Urban Area by 1980 Is 4,900. 
The recommended capacity of the two existing schools - P. K. Yonge and Gainesville 
High are 270 and 1,651, respectively, or a total of 1,921. This is less than the actual 
total enrollment last fall of 3,402 and Gainesville High School is currently on double 
sessions to accommodate the overload. 

The two new schools under construction will Initially serve as combined junior- 
senior high schools. The recommended initial capacity of Buholtz Is 1,063 with ultimate 
expansion to a standard recommended size high school of 1,600. The new Eastslde School 
has a recommended Initial capacity of 1,012, and again Is ultimately recommended for 
expansion to a full sized high school of 1,600. The latter recommendations are from the 
1967 "Update Survey" of Alachua County School Plants. Thus, the total recommended 
capacity of the four high school. I.e. Gainesville High School, P. K. Yonge, Buchholz 
and Eastslde would be 5, 121 or only 221 more than the anticipated enrollment for high 
schools alone by that date. It would appear therefore that there will be a need for 
three additional junior high schools, for a total of five. If this enrollment Is reached and 
the new schools become senior high schools only. 

The last "Update Survey" recommended that Lincoln High eventually become a 
junior high school only. It currently is functioning, however, as a vocational school 
for various ages under jurisdiction of Santa Fe Junior College, and partially for some 
special classes under the School Board. Some of the present students are of high school 
level and should usage by this level of pupils continue or increase, this would of course 
reduce the numbers at the four abovementioned high school plants and allow at least one 
of them to continue handling some of the junior high students. 

-102- 



Thus, because it is impossible fo precisely determine the ultimate disposition 
of the existing school plants at the junior-senior high level, it cannot be stated with 
certainty how many new plants will be needed. It would appear very likely that at 
least two new junior high schools will be needed, however, and plans should be made 
for no less than this number of sites. Continued growth into the eighties will 
certainly make up for any shortage of enrollment apparent by 1980. It is likewise 
impossible to pinpoint the best location for these new schools because of the unsettled 
question of the ultimate use of the two combined shcools, but it would seem that the 
SW portion of the Urban Area is least well served by upper level schools at present. 

Utilities 



A ten year master plan for utilities including water, sewerage and electricity 
was prepared by the consulting firm of Black, Crow, and Eidsness in September, 1965. 
This plan has provided the guidelines for expansion of the utility system, and will 
continue to serve that purpose, subject to continued review in light of changing con- 
ditions. A summary of that plan was provided in the Community Facilities and 
Recreation Study. 

Many of the expansion and improvements recommendations of that master plan 
have been implemented and were considerations in drafting the Future Land Use Plan. 
For example, a site for a new power generating plant has already been purchased 
northwest of, and outside of, the present urban area boundaries. It was, therefore, 
a known factor and did not require additional locational studies. 

Utility expansion is a prime determinant of urban area growth. Thus in addition 
to the twin goals as stated in the Policies Plan of "Adequate and Efficient Service" 
and "Fair Distribution of Costs and Benefits" might be added a logical expansion 
of the system concurrent with the goals of urban area growth. Expansion in a manner 
to implement growth policies, however, must be weighted against the equally desired 
end of an integrated, single system, and very importantly in this community, the necessity 
of staying competitive with other systems. The utility system, at least the electric 
system, has served as a source of revenue for the community in the past. This is 
extremely important in a community which has as its main economic base public 
institutions which pay no property taxes ( and in fact the largest of which, the 
University, is supplied free water and buys its electricity from a competive power 
company ). 

In summary, the future expansion and growth of utilities will be one of variable 
factors against which the Future Land Use Plan must be continually gauged, with 
restudy and revision when necessary to accommodate future changes in the former. 
Such changes should however, be the result of a conscious evaluation of the variable 



-103- 



goals menfioned above. It should be noted that the somewhat contained growth 
pattern which is a recommendation inheient in the proposed Land Use Plan is consistent 
with the desires of the Utilities Department for logical growth. 

With regards to physical improvements, it was presumed that the Ten Year 
Master Plan is still valid with those slight modifications already made to it. Sub- 
stantial shifts in policy or plan in the future should be cause for review of this Plan. 



TRANSPORTATION 



Transportation land uses, in most communities, are the second largest land users, 
being second only to residential land uses. The location and design of transportation 
arteries and transportation facilities play a very significant role in shaping land uses. 
The attendant noises, odors, noxious fumes, and possible psychological effects associated 
with the heavy movement of private and service vehicles often alters the existing adjoining 
land uses and possible future land uses. For these reasons, transportation planning and 
land use planning must be properly integrated to provide the maximum future protection 
of the health, safety, convenience, amenities, and economy of the persons associated 
with an urbanizing area. 



The proposed Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Plan will contain recommendations 
for major traffic arteries after the traffic studies needed for such o comprehensive 
transportation plan are completed. Origin and destination surveys must also be completed 

which will yield the required information on intra - and inter - city movements. Ke- 
liable data for origin - destination purposes are obtained by home interviews, supple- 
mented by information procured by stopping a sample of the vehicles passing through 
the "cordon line", a line drawn around the urban interview area. Only after analysis 
of the existing traffic movements and characteristics, the capacity of the existing street 
and thoroughfare network, and projections of future traffic volumes can well -based 
recommendations be made for future capital improvements for thoroughfares. Such 
information will be forthcoming in a Land Use and Transportation Study now underway 
under the jurisdiction of the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 

The Department of Community Development in early 1969 completed two preliminary 
circulation - thoroughfare studies which provide an inventory of existing traffic flow, 
street improvements and pavement widths in the Gainesville Urban Area. In addition 
the preliminary studies attempted to consolidate the requirements contained in the City 
Zoning Ordinance and subdivision regulations and portray them on the thoroughfare 
map. New terminology was proposed for functional classification of streets and a set 
of typical street cross -sections were proposed. 

-104- 



1 
I 
I 
I 

! 
\ 
\ 
\ 

4 



Savercl shortccmlngs of the exisfing street system in the Gainesville Urban 
Area were pointed out. These shctcomings are related to the obvious lack of 
principal and minor arterials of sufficient width to carry existing traffic volumes 
and to the tremendous mileage of streets lacking hard surface paving and/or 
adequate drainage facilities ( well over 100 miles inside the Corporate Limits). 
It was therefore recommended that: 

D Concentrated efforts be made for the improvement of existing arterials 

through support of the Florida State Road Department Five Year Plan 
and through applications for Federal assistance to implement re- 
commendations resulting from the Urban Land Use and Transportation 
Study. 

D Cooperate with the County Commission through the North Central 

Florida Regional Planning Council on joint projects for improvements 
in the street system both inside and outside the corporate limits. 

n Establish a coordinated program whereby all streets will be paved and 

adequate drainage facilities installed. This effort could include 
programs such as Concentrated Code Enforcement, low cost paving, 
urban renewal and the normal street assessment to abutting property 
owners. 

At the present time different sets of terminology are used in various City 
ordinances and on the Major Thoroughfare Map, and different setbacks and right- 
of-way widths are recommended. Additionally, there is not a single set of cross- 
sections adopted or even on file for use in street construction. It was therefore 
recommended that: 

n The Zoning Ordinance, Subdivision Regulations and Major Thoroughfare 

Map be amended to delete existing terminology and to incorporate 
the funtional classification systems including recommended right-of- 
way widths and setbacks. 

Q The cross-sections as recommended in this study be placed on file 

and used for all future street construction. 

—I The list of streets for setback from centerlines found in the Zoning 

Ordinance and the streets designated on the Major Thoroughfare 
Plan be amended so that the two lists are consistent. 



-105- 



□ Centerlines for all principal arterials, minor arterials and collectors 

be established in order to achieve uniformit/. Heretofore, there has 
been confusion concerning whether the setback was to be applied from 
the centerline or existing right-of-way, or existing pavement or from 
a section or quarter section line. 



□ The existing Major Thoroughfare Map be re-evaluated to eliminate 

obvious shortcomings. Major modifications should not be made until 
results of the Urban Land Use and Transportation Study are known, but 
there are a number of streets designated on the Map that are superfluous 
by any standard. 



Maintain a firm policy of obtaining necessary right-of-way through 
the use of right inherent in the subdivision regulations, through site 
plan approval by the City Plan Board and through application of 
recommended setbacks for all new development and not supporting 
variances to such requirements. 



Preserve the function of existing principal and minor arterials by 
deemphasizing unlimited access to abutting land through the promotion 
of marginal access roads. 



The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council is currently involved in the 
preliminary studies necessary before the Land Use Area Transportation Study can get 
underway later this year. The Regional Planning Council, in cooperation with Alachua 
County, the City of Gainesville, the Florida State Road Department, and the Bureau 
of Public Roads, will coordinate and analyze the findings of the traffic data made 
available to develop recommendations both for existing thoroughfares and possible new 
thoroughfares. 

The end p rod uct,« twenty year thoroughfare plan for the Gainesville Urban Area, 
will be based in large part upon the proposed Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Plan. 
It should be pointed out, however, that changes in the proposed land use may ultimately 
be made if traffic projections indicate unrealistic thoroughfare needs to service given 
areas. Thus, the recommendations of the Land Use Area Transportation Study will reflect 
the proposed land use relationships in the Gainesville Urban Area Land Use Plan while 
possibly altering the original Land Use Plan to allow ultimate development to be serviced 
by adequate thoroughfares. 



-106- 



J 
I 





(1 
i 
J 
I 

! 
I 
I 



l^'iPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN 



This plan, like any plan, is only a guide or blueprint whigh will serve as a 
framework for development decisions to shape a better community in the years to 
come. The extent to which the plan actually is followed will in large part depend 
on certain implementation devises which can be used to guide growth in the manner 
projected by the plan. Normally these devices include a capital improvements 
program, zoning, subdivision regulations, and sometimes urban renewal. 

In terms of the land use plan the most important implementation device is the 
zoning ordinance. Theoretically, zoning district categories and zoning district 
boundaries should be drawn in a manner which would reflect the objectives of the 
approved land use plan. In actual practive however, zoningfrequently preceeds the 
actual development of a plan. Such has been the case in this community. It becomes 
a difficult task to revise existing zoning boundaries to reflect the plan, when such 
revision results in changes which many persons feel would jeopardize vested interest 
in existing zoning. 

This is not to say, however, that existing zoning cannot be used to implement 
the objectives of the plan. One of the difficulties in a wholesale revision of zoning 
maps stems from the large surpluses of zoning for different uses which is characteristic 
of almost all zoning ordinance^as was mentioned earlier in this text. By suggesting 
alternative uses for some of this land it is possible that rezonings can be encouraged. 
The policies section of this plan should also act as a guide for future zoning decisions 
on a parcel by parcel or individual request basis. In addition, the zoning ordinance 
itself should be re-examined and evaluated In terms of the objectives of the plan and 
the policies set forth herein . Changes in the text or in maps could then follow in an 
orderly fashion as deemed desirable and feasible. 

Unfortunately zoning, and to an extent other Implementation devices, are in 
effect negative controls, which by their structure are designed more to prevent evil 
than to encourage good. The plan, on the other hand, hopefully will encourage better 
development patterns by the logic of its recommendations. 

Good subdivision regulations and proper enforcement will be essential as new lands 
are developed for various uses. Sound regulations can insure the orderly and coordinated 
growth of such new areas and the provision of adequate and needed improvements. Such 
Improvements are essential to Insure that growth areas are an asset and not a liability to 
the community - at - large. 

-107- 



Urban Renewal is a generic term used to describe governmental assisted programs 
which are used to bring about physical improvement in given areas of the community. 
These range from the conservation of sound areas, rehabilitation of structures and the 
physical setting of areas which are in a state of disrepair, to total clearance and 
redevelopment of areas which are in such a dilapidated state as not to offer any useful 
further economic or social purpose. 

Finally, one of the most important means whereby the plan objectives can be 
accomplished is the scheduling of capital improvements which are installed by the 
government. The public development decisions of the community should be scheduled 
on a long term basis, so that provisions can be made in advance for the extension of 
utilities, the selection of school sites, recreation park sites, and all other development 
decisions in a manner which would best bring about the growth in a planned and orderly 
manner. It should be noted that the recently completed plan for the New York City 
region called for the purchase of all recommended park and recreation land now, and 
not to wait until full development occurs. 

With the completion of this plan, the first objective of the planning process 
should be an analysis and recommendation of needed changes to all of the implementation 
devices now available to the community. This should include a detailed study of certain 
areas on the plan which were left open for further study, possibly through the device 
of a community renewal plan program. It also should include a re-examination of zoning, 
subdivision regulations and most particularly the completion of a long range capital 
improvement program for the community. 



-108- 



1 



1 



J 



CONCLUSIONS 

This report contains too many recommendations to summarize all of them in 
a concluding statement. Among the major recommendations is that of preserving 
a network of open space from Lake Kanapaha, and Sugarfbot Prairie and the 
Hogtown basin near NW 8th Avenue Northwesterly to the Devils Mil I hopper for 
major park use and for its value as open space in its own right, a factor of in- 
creasingly recognized importance. Another major regional open space and 
park facility is recommended in the eastern part of the Urban Area near Newnan's 
Lake. Implied too in the report is a recommendation that certain of the older, more 
obsolete areas of the community be the subject of a more intensive study, leading 
hopefully to more complete recommendations for the upgrading of said areas. It 
is anticipated that an application will be filed with the Department of Housing 
and Urban Development for Federal assistance to prepare a community renewal 
plan. Such a plan will delineate the City's renewal needs and a program to 
eleminate the conditions causing such needs. 

For a comparison of the very generalized land use recommendations of the 
Plan with the current zoning and current land use, please refer to Table XII. 
These totals are only approximations for in many areas the Plan was purposely 
generalized to permit a certain flexibility where appropriate. 

It should be recognized too that there is no "ideal" proportion or distribution 
of land uses, for an acceptable ideal city upon which total consensus of all 
people can be reached has not yet been revealed. What is presented is hope- 
fully a flexible but viable guide by which future growth may occur in a logical 
and satisfying manner to the majority of this community's citizens. 



-109- 



< 

z 
< 

CQ 

3 



X 



CO 

< 



o c 

0) 
c E D 

^i < 



3 ':;r 



C 




o o 



c 


2i 


<N CO 


O^ 


^ 


4) 


< 


hv 00 


CO 


o- 


y 


-D 


to --^ 


NO 


CO 




(1) 

C 

o 
N 


TJ- r- 




;0 



m 

c 


rx ^ o 


CO 


% 


^ 


— 


CM — r^ 


o 


o 


c 


Cv4 >© CO 


r\ 


o 


OK 



o 
N 



o 

:< 

C -D 
V <U 
O QJ 

'- o 

0) — 
O. 0) 

> 

«> 



c Z) ^ 

•- QJ 

.?< 5 < 



in 
X 

lU 



C 

o 



CM O CM 


^ 


o 


in 


r\ 


r- 


o 


I^ 


8 


CM hx lO 


:S 


CM 


o 


lO 


o 


CO 
CM 


CO 


o 
o 



03 O 00 
— CSI O 
CO 00 00 




-o 

00 
CO 


00 CO cm" 

CM 


CO 


— "■ 



o 
o 



CN_ 



IT) 


>o 


— K 


CM 


00 


to 


•o o- 


CO 


o 




^ lO 


o 



CO 



CM «0 



CN 



00 
CM 

m 



lO 


o 


CM 
CO 


M3 
00 



^ 



Si 



CN 



O 
O 

O 
O 



-o — 



00 



<M 



OO 
CO 



CO 
00 

o 

CO 



o 

CO 



•o o» o 
00 o in 




CO 
CM 


CN 


O- 
CM 


CO 


00 — 
-^ CO 


CO 


o 
o 


Tf CM — 
CM 


00 
CN 


CM 


O 


— 


o 


rx 00 

CO CM 


CN 


8 



<N 



CO 00 


o 


^ ' 


o 


o 


, 


o 


CO 


K 


m 


o 


O- 00 


rx 


M3 


CN 


>o 


o 


o^ 


CO 


O 


-^ 


o 


IX -^ 


CO 


o 


to 




CO 




rx 


in 


o- 


CO 


V 




V 










V 


>, 


^ 




U-) 




S' 










00 


S- 


S3 


CO 
CM 
















CN 






















^^^ 






















yt 






















« 


















• 




■D 




TJ > 

0) 0) 
















O 


c 




§? 
















15 


,o 




"1-2 
















D 


*- 






X 




"p 










Ql. 


D 


* 


-D -O 
















1 


«^ 




0) 0) 


^ E 


<u 


■*- 

c 










'e 


•*- 


^ 


Q.-0 
O C 


Fami 
e Fa 


E 
o 


0) 

0) 






"ja 


0) 

S! 

0) 


0) 
OO 

o6 


.0, 


O 


evel 


0) .9- 


0) 


Q£ 




v 


•*- 


o 




o 


^ s 


1 . 


• ^ 


^ ■ 


• ^ 


u 


v> 








^~' fl) 


o> — 

C 3 


O 


O 


a 


£ 


3 

-a 


1 


JQ 


IB 


p ^ 


l^:^:^ 


o 


0) 


o 


c 


^ 


3 




a. 


o >- 
f- o 



o 



c 

D 

O 

O 

> 



o 

tx 

<r 

00 

<u 

O </> 
*- D 

|< 

'I 

o > 

0) oO 

■J: <y 

zl 

-g ? 



o 

00 



"O 
0) 

c 
o 
N 

-«- 
o 
Z 



o 

< 

c 

1- 

=) 

"p 
o 



> 

Q 

O) 

c 

c 

c 

D 



i) 

U 

i- 

i5^ 



^_ 


0) 


D 

() 


s 


C. 


0) 


0) 

E 


? 


E 
o 


^ 


O 


"? 


■? 


o 


o 


"o 


ut 




4) 




O 


W) 


14- 


3 

-o 


o 


_C 


t/t 


w> 


V 


0) 


-o 


-o 


3 


3 






U 


a 


c 


c 



CO ■^• 



c 

4) 

c 
'c 

'e 



CO e 

T O 



C3) 



C 

-o 

_3 ~ 



Z. u- 

>v o 

— *- 
c c 

O 
t 

0) 

E 

Q. 

- q 

4) _ 
> — 

4> 

"^ 3 
-O -C 
4> 

4) - 

E 

E • 
o 1 

(J c 
4) ( 
Qi _ 

— CN 



-no- 



APPENDIX 



-111- 



I 




1 I SINGLE FAMIUY ||m COMMERCi 

[''■■^".'i MULTIPLE FAMILY | | OFFICES 

iSOT K«OBILE HOMES ■" 



^.:'':,^i^ PUBLIC a 8EMI- PUBLIC 
P, ,- J MAJOR INBTITUTtONAL 



EXISTING LAND USE 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

GAINESVILLE . FLORIDA ISTO 



-.tTTlllilltrrs. 




CZ]' 



PROPOSED 



LAND USE PLAN 



-tfliilUlrw 



EEl o.*™' 



GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

OAlNeeviLUE . FLORIDA IG70 



^^ 



Fiafl 
Docs 



I